OCR PE AS Level - Contemporary studies in PE

A complete set of revision cards for OCR PE AS Level topic contemporary studies in PE



Leisure is a time where their is an opportunity for choice

Who - anyone

where - free choice

when - whenever

why - enjoyment, stress relief, refreshment, slef-development, achievement, friendship, creativity, health and fitness, well being

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Play is spontaneous, enjoyable, childlike activity

who - adults, children

when - decided by the participants

where - freedom of choice

how - casually, spontaneously, involving physical activity

why - fun, experience, escape stress and routine, learn about life

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values of play

  • physical - skipping, hoping jumping
  • social - cooperation, friendships
  • moral - being fair, kind, not cheating
  • environmental - safety, caring for the environment
  • cognitive - making games, rules, decisions
  • emotional - managing winning and losing properly
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Physical Education

described as:

  • the formal teaching of both knowledge and values
  • education of and through the physical

who - children and young adults by teaching professionals

when - during school or college, lessons, educational visits

where - schools, colleges, off-site facilites

why - learn physical and personal skills, national curriculum

how - variety of teaching styles, variety of activities

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Characteristics of physical education

  • It is physical - children learn skills that enable them to take part in a variety of practical, recreative and sporting activities
  • It is child-centred - the child is more important that the activity or outcome
  • It is institutional - it takes place in educational establishments
  • It is valuable - children learn both physical and personal skills through PE

Values associated with physical education:

  • physical values - improve health and motor skills e.g CV fitness or agility
  • Preparation values - prepare for active leisure or a career e.g a PE teacher
  • Personal values -  develop personal and social skills e.g cooperation
  • qualitative values - improve the quality life e.g aesthetic awareness
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Dimension of physical activity in schools

Sport - competitive, extra-curricular or inter-house competitions

physical recreation - enjoyment orientated, participation by all, lunchtime clubs

Education - the learning that occurs in PE lessons

Within on lesson of e.g swimming:

  • Sport - the competitive race at the end of the lesson
  • physical recreation - the enjoyable, fun orientated warm up or 'free time' at the end
  • education - the stroke analysis of the main body of the lesson
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Outdoor Education

described as learning in and about the outdoors.

It its the element of risk and the unpredictability of the natural environment that distinguishes outdoor education from other aspects of PE. It gives a unique opportunity for learning.

Who - school children, qualified leaders/staff

when - national curriculum, as part of a structures school or college programme

where - natural environment, artificial facilities

how - strict health and safety regulations. Sometimes constraints must be over come e,g expense

Why - physical health, positive values, personal and social development

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Risk factor in Outdoor education

  • Beginners
  • Committed experts
  • Predictable - largely under the control of the participant e,g by correct use of equipment
  • Unpredictable - events over which participant has no control - avalanche
  • Percieved Risk  - imagined risk. Sought by teachers to give beginners/learners a sense of adventure for personal challenge/development
  • Real Risk - which can be dangerous and even fatal, avoided at all cost by staff for youngsters/beginners by careful preparation and use of appropriate kit and equipment. Sometimes embraced by committed experts seeking greater challenges
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Sport in school

Sport in schools is currently promoted:

  • at primary level - in england throught the TOPS programmes and in wales through Dragon sport
  • at secondary level - by specialist sports colleges
  • at both levels - by sports development officers

Youth sport aims - works with organsiations to develop and implement PE and sports programmes for young people

TOPS aims - child friendly equipment, quality training for teachers and delieverers

Dragons sports aims - to develop strong school/clubs links, to support the development of junior sections by clubs, to encourage parents and teachers to get involved in sports leadership and to give 7-11 year olds a good sporting experience

Sports colleges aims - to provide high quality PE teaching in PE and sport

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Sports development officers

  • employees of the local authority
  • part of the county sports development unit
  • usually would will all sports but sometimes specific sports


  • work to increase community access to sport and leisure
  • work to increase opportunity and provision
  • provide advice, support and resources to performers, coaches and clubs
  • promote sport englands active sports programme
  • develop coaching for teachers
  • organise sports festivals and courses
  • help set up clubs
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physical recreation

when an activity is pursued as physical recreation with emphasis on:

  • taking part rather than winning
  • having a good experience rather than strickly sticking to the rules
  • personal satisfaction rather than record breaking
  • enjoyment rather than competition

Who - anynoe

When - participant decides

Where - participant decides

How - limited organisation, limited competition, relatively unsophisticated level

Why - enjoyment, stress relief, relaxation, personal development

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Outdoor recreation

Outdoor recreation is the use of the natural environment(mountains etc) for enjoyment during leisure time

Outdoor can develop the following:

  • Appreciation from the natural environment
  • respect for the countryside
  • a sense of adventure
  • an awareness of risk and safety
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On the functional side, sport is:

  • a highly competitve, hightly organised and structured activity requiring a high level of commitment and skill
  • a unique situation in which individuals can learn and show sportsmanship and fair play
  • an opportunity to show physical prowess(skill) and physical endeavour (effort)
  • a place to excel, make lifelong friends and become a positive role

On the dysfunctional side, sport might be described as:

  • 'War minus the shooting'
  • a global opportunity for violence, deviance and hatred
  • the venue for cheating and gamesmanship(trying to get an unfair advantage without acutally breaking the letter of the law)
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What makes a sport a sport?

The more often that the folowing features fit a particular acitivity, the more likely it is that the activity could be classifies as sport.

1. tradition

2. Physical Exertion

3. Competition

4. Rules

5. Behaviour

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The difference between sport and physical recreati

  • Level of competition
  • Level of skill
  • level of commitment
  • level of ashereance to national governing body rules
  • level of media coverage and sponsorship
  • The quality of the venue
  • The stringency of start and finish times
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Amateur and Professionalism

  • Amateur is from the latin work amare - to love. To take part in sport as an amateur is to take part for pleasure, not for financial gain
  • A professional is someone who takes part for payment - it is their job

Originally, amateur and professional status was determined by social class.

Does Britain still have an amateur approach to sport?

  • Central government shows less commitment and involvement than some other countries
  • Central government gives limited finiancial support to sport
  • Not all outstanding performers get lottery funding
  • Facilities are inferior to many other countries
  • Many coaches are still unpaid amateurs
  • Time for PE in schools is limited
  • Primary schools seldom have PE specialists
  • The majority of sports clubs in the UK are voluntary and run by unpaid amateurs
  • National governing bodies of sport still rely on volunteer administrators
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Sport for all and elite sport

The term 'sport for all' implies that everyone has (or should have) the opportunity to take part in the sport of their choice, irresprective of their skill level, commitment or any social or cultural differences such as wealth, gender or age

Elite sport refers to the very best performers being given the necessary support in order to achieve international success.

Excellence - National or international competition by full-time elite performers who recieve financial, administrative, medical and other support

Performance - the improvement of performance standard due to regular training, coaching and commitment to club and regional level.

Participation - The choosing of selected activities at local level for health, fitness, enjoyment and friendships, through extra-curricular school programmes, local clubs or sports centres.

Foundation - the learning of basic movement skills in young children

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The role of the coach

Coaches adopt many different roles in the course of their work. They are a Manager, Friend, Publicity agent, Administrator, First aider, Motivator and Disciplinarian to name just a few.

There are 3 central roles of a coach:

  • Instructor - gives instructions - often about rules of safter, one-way communication. No feedback from learner
  • Trainer - interesed in outcome of performance, gives advice on technique training and so on, two way communication increases as skill of performer increases
  • Educator - interested in the whole person as an individual, concerned with experience as musch as the outcome, a two way relationship
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Sport and Culture

  • Sport reflectes the culture (traditions, customs, sports, pastimes) and society(interacting community) i which it exists.
  • 'Sport and culture' is the link between culture and physical activity within it.
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Survival of tradition sports and festivals in Brit

Surviving traditional sports and festivals are either single sport occasions (ashbourne football match) or mutli-sport festivals (the highland games)

Characterisitics of surviving ethnic sports:

  • local
  • traditional
  • social
  • relatively isolated
  • rowdy
  • tourism
  • occasional/annual
  • ritualistic
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Tribal societies

Tribal societies were affected by colonialisation - the nineteeth century emipre building by dominant nations who took over and govered previously independent regions of the world

Phases of development:

  • Pre-colonial - the inherent activiteies of a society before the arrival and influence of British and other colonialists
  • Colonial - changes brough about by the imposition of foreign customs and behaviour.
  • Post-colonial - the contemporary scene with possible re-emergence of tradition ethnic identity (the unique behavious and characteristics of the communtiy , which are often based on tradition and ritual)
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Spread of Imperialism and team games around the wo

During the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1902):

  • British life bcame more civilised and technologically advanced
  • English public schools became hotbeads of team games for the development  of manly qualities and character
  • Missionaries took Christianity far afield
  • Britain gathered and colonised a vast empire

characteristics of sports and games in tribal societies:

  • Natural
  • Functional
  • Survival
  • Community/social
  • Ritual
  • Ceremonial
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Changes brought about by colonialisation

  • Military
  • Law and order
  • Schools
  • Missionaries
  • Commercial
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Emergent societies

  • Emergent countries are less economically developed countries, e.g some in africa, the far east and central and south america
  • They are emerging (or developing) from tribal origins to greater political stability and socio-economic and technological levels.
  • Emergent societies sometimes use sport as a vehicle for advancement

Sport in emergent countries:

  • Motives: stability, health, nation building, defence, intergration
  • Strategies for success: selection, unequal funding, role models, high profile, low technology
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The links between sport and commercialism and spor

  • Internation sporting success increases a country's status
  • Advanced societies use sport to show their supposed superiority over other nations

Capitalist economies are those where private ownership dominates and is encouraged. In capitalist economies, private wealth is used to produce and distribute good and services. In socialist economies, state ownership dominates and controls commerce, policy and practice. In mixed economies both private and public enterprise operates together. A democracy is a country is a country where the people have the right to particupate in publiv affairs

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Sport commercialism - the 'American Dream'

  • In the USA, sport is big business
  • Professional sport is inextricably linked with sponsorship and the media
  • Private and corporate buisnesses use sport to promote products and to achieve goodwill
  • High school sport has a high profile and attracts huge sponsorship with the best high school 'athletes' gaining scholarships to colleges and universities
  • College players are almost 'professionals' in terms of dedication, support and pressure and the best are 'drafted' into professional sport.
  • The win ethic dominates (winningis the only thinkg that matters) with professional sport reflecting the competitive and capitalist nature of US society
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Sport and politics - the 'Shop window'

  • In china for example sport is used as a political tool
  • sport and politics are inextricably linked
  • Politicians use sport to promote their country and their political system, though sport can be used for internal motives
  • The Olympics Games is used as the 'stage'
  • Potentially successful athletes are sought and given all possible support in order to gain success
  • They can also be abused in terms of pressure (possibly to take drugs) and other forms of abuse.
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Sport, Commercialism and politics

  • National
  • Ideological
  • Political
  • The 'Shop Window'
  • Functional
  • Recreational
  • The American Dream
  • Commerical
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Sporting excellence and mass participation

Sporting Excellence:

  • Policy - government intiatives and government support including policy on funding. Policy is based on ideology (a particular system of ideas, beliefs and values).
  • Provision - features that encourage or allow excekkence or participation, e.g the availability of suitable facilities, equipment, coaches, competition, courses etc
  • Administration - the structure organisation and funding of sport by organisation

Mass Participation:

  • Opportunity - features that exist to increase the chance to participate e.g availability of time, social or physical access, appropriate playing standard, suitable cost and so on
  • Provision - features that encourage or allow excekkence or participation, e.g the availability of suitable facilities, equipment, coaches, competition, courses etc
  • Esteem - self-confidence and respect from others. Linked to societal staus
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Sporting issues

  • School sport
  • discrimination
  •  mass participation
  • excellence
  • ethics
  • administrative agencies and special interest groups
  • funding
  • media
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Uk Sport

Aim: to develop elite sport in UK

and excellence for:

  • oversees UK Sports Institute (UKSI)
  • Involved in 'More Medals' aspect of World Class Performance programme
  • Runs doping control
  • Distributes lottery funding
  • Attracts major sporting events
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UK Sport Institute (UKSI) and Home Country institu

Aim: To provide Britain best performers with the facilities and support services they need to compete and win at the highest level

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National Governing Bodies


  • To maintain rules and regulations
  • to control finances
  • to plan and implement education programmes for coaches and officials
  • to appoint technical directors to delive against performance plans
  •   To select performer for World Class Funding
  • To select and prepare national squads
  • to deal with discipalinary welfare issues
  • to organise national competition
  • to co-orfinate with international governing body
  • to encourage participation at all levels
  • to organise local competitions
  • to plan and co-ordinate suppor programmes for affiliate clubs
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Special interest groups

  • Womens sports foundation - to improve and promote opportunites for women and firls in sport at every level by influencing changes in sports policy, practice and culture
  • Disability Sport England - To imporve awareness of and image of disability sport
  • Sports coach UK - to develop a coaching system that supports and enhances sports coaches and coaching throught the UK
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funding for sport

Providing for mass participation and international sprinting success is very expensive

Funding for sport in this country can be divided into the following sectors:

  • Public - from central goverment and local authorities
  • private - from companies whose aim is to make money, but who also wish to support sport
  • voluntary - from National Governing Bodies and local private sports clubs, which exist for their members.
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Possible funding for Britains elite/up and coming

  • Trusts and charities
  • sports/aid sponsorship
  • Parents and families
  • private companies
  • national governing body
  • part time or full time work
  • world class performance programme (lottery)
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Influence of the media

The media is made up of TV radio newspapers the internet magazines books films and videos

The media has 4 key roles:

  • To inform
  • to educate
  • to entertain
  • to advertise

the golden triangle - sport sponsorship and media

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Influence of sponsorship

  • Sports sponsorship is the provision of moeny (or other support) to gain recognition and increased income
  • Sponsorshope agencies bring sponsrs and sports bodies together to organise events or programmes
  • companies invest in perimeter advertising around and on pitches
  • agents promote particular competitors for mutual financial benefit
  • performers endorse (give their backing) to products by displaying the company name on their clothing or equipment.
  • sports stars use their celebrity status to advertise away from the sports arena
  • sponsorship is uneven across sports
  • minority sports or those pursued by minority groups find it hard to get sponsorship because of limited media coverage
  • the institute of sports sponsorships is a national non-profit making organisation made up of companies that sponse sport, The ISS aims to prtect the traditional nature of sport, help campanies to get fair returns on outlay, co-operate with other organisation and runs the Sportsmatch scheme
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Violence by performers

Violence in sports to be a frequent occurence. Violence by sports performers can be analysed in terms of:

  • cheating - it is against the rules
  • health - it can cause injury
  • legality - outbursts of physical violence are increasingly countered with legal action
  • role modelling - and the responsibility of high profile performers

Possible causes of violence by players:

  • importance of result
  • nature of the game
  • provaction of 'sledging'
  • disappointment and frustration
  • de-humanised view of opposition
  • weapons
  • crowd behavious
  • emotional intensity
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Possible solutions to the problem of violence by p

  • rules changes
  • more severe penalities
  • educaton
  • greater numbers
  • technology
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Violence by spectators

Violence by spectators at sporting events is an important sociological issue, We need to review its possible causes and outline possible solutions to the problem.

Possible causes of crowd violence:

  • ritual importance of event
  • violence by players on the pitch
  • pre-match hype in newspapers, on TV or at the ground
  • controversial decisions by officials
  • chanting and abuse from rival fans
  • diminished responsibility by individuals when in a large group
  • activity by a minority of violent criminals in organised groups
  • limited alternative outlets for stress in modern industrial society
  • the score or result
  • clumsy and primitive strategies
  • religion
  • alcohol
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Possible solution to the problem of crowd violence

  • promotion of football as family entertainment
  • removal of terraces/all seater stadiums
  • CCTV arounf stadiums and security checks
  • tougher deterrents
  • separation of fans from different clubs
  • liaison by police in different areas of the country
  • control of alcohol
  • removal of perimeter fenece between crowds and pitch
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Drugs in sport

Why do performers take drugs:

  • physiological reasons
  • psychological reasons
  • socials reasons
  • moral reasons
  • health resons
  • legal reasons
  • role modelling


  • stricter
  • punishments
  • closed season tests
  • lifebans
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Facilities for mass participation

  • Public facilities - funded by local authorities for community use
  • Private facilities - privately or group owned for profit, using sport as the commodity
  • Voluntary facilities - run by and for unpaid members. They charge subscriptions to cover costs and put any profit back into the club
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Discrimination in sport

Discrimination is unfairness. If discrimination  occurs in society, it will be noticeable in the sport of that society. Discrimination is to do with:

  • unfair treatment
  • stereotypical images of groups of people
  • an imbalance of power between groups
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Factors affecting participation

  • where you live
  • your school
  • your friends
  • your socio-economic status
  • you age
  • your ability or disability
  • the government
  • your family
  • you race and/or religion
  • you gender
  • sterotyping
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women in sport: where is there discrimination

  • Provision
  • esteem
  • attitudes
  • communities/families/schools
  • media
  • funding
  • opportunity
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Ethnic minorities

  • britian is a multi-cultural and mutli-racial society
  • racism stems from prejudice linked with the power of one racial roup over another
  • sterotypical thinking should be challenged through race awareness training
  • opportuniries should be provided for different cultural groups to pursue their own cultural activities
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Sport, ability and disability

  • attitudes and assumptions
  • myths and stereotyping
  • inadequately designed environments

what has been, is being done:

  • several national disability sports associations
  • increased cooperation between sporting organisations
  • intergration of non-disabled and disabled people in sport
  • emphasis on positive images of disabled people in sport
  • improved facilities
  • improved technolofy/equipment
  • raised awareness
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older people

Sport is good for older people because of the following:

  • health
  • social reasons
  • physcological reasons

why arent older people more involved?

  • low self-esteem
  • may be physically restricted
  • perception that they arent good enough
  • lack of facilities
  • limited funds
  • lack of access
  • poor previous experience
  • leaders and coaches not specialised
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Young people

reasons for young people dropping out:

  • perception that you have to be good
  • lack of transport
  • expense
  • peer pressure
  • reduced opportunites at school
  • lack of provision
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Bethan Harris


There is an additional set of revision cards to this section which covers the new topics of the USA, Oz and Public Schools



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