paper 2

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  • Created by: chloe108
  • Created on: 19-05-21 09:27

question 1a

(i) Describe what is meant by the term 'deviance' [3]

Deviance is a violation of society's norms ranging from something minor e.g traffic offence to something major e.g murder. It is behaviour that goes against the dominant social norms of a specific group which causes some kind of reaction or disapproval e.g not standing in a queue

(ii) Using examples from the scenario, explain behaviour that could be described as criminal, deviant, or both [5]

CRIMINAL: illegal downloading of music- protected by copyright, Edna's attack on Sidney - stabbing in the heart resulting in his death

DEVIANT: keeping 40 cats, name calling from neighbours

BOTH: graffiti on Edna's door- vandalism, misdemeanour. Playing loud music which upsets neighbours- anti-social behaviour

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question 1b

Explain how fear may have prevented Edna from reporting the name calling and the loud music to the police [2]

Edna could experience further action from Sidney who lives next door and he could cause more problems by playing music more often or louder. 

She could also experience other residents who call her names and suggest she needs locking up.The response is increasing with graffiti

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question 1c

(i) Describe one sociological theory of criminality [4]

Marxism assumes disadvantaged social class is a primary cause and crime is largely a result of unfavourable conditions within a community e.g unemployment. It is mainly by the ruling class who uses crime as social control with a lack of conformity equalling punishment. Police and prisons encourage the working class to conform. Crime happens becuase of inequality and poverty.

(ii) Analyse how the theory described above can be applied to Edna’s situation [5]

Edna has lived in poverty most of her life and this disadvanatage could be the cause of her committing crime. She is aware that Sidney is wealthy and society has failed to help her as it was ensuring control. Edna now faces the Criminal Justice System and punishment of prison.

(iii) Evaluate the effectiveness of the sociological theory described on page 3 in explaining causes of criminality [6]

Marxism ignores individual motivation and the connection between crime and other inequalities e.g gender. It disregards other issues e.g music playing and name calling. It assumes that all people that live in poverty commit crime. Capitalism encourages competiveness and Edna is aware of Sidney's wealth which is a sign of class conflict. Crime can result from inequalities in the social structure and laws are created to protect the ruling class.

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question 2a

Explain, with examples, what is meant by the term ‘decriminalisation’ [4]

Decriminalisation is a process which may see society refusing to accept an action is criminal leading to a reduction in punishment. There will be reluctance by police to enforce punishment when people no longer follow the law as they consider it legal. The act becomes legalised and laws are frequently ammended meaning they cannot be imposed or enforced due to changing values in society. The government has little choice but to decriminalise as it has to accept the criminal act cannot be controlled as people take no notice. 

Examples include:

  • Homosexuality where it was once criminal
  • Underage drinking and smoking
  • Smoking is no longer taken very seriously
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question 2b

Evaluate two campaign methods that may be used to campaign for change [6]

Social Networking

  • easy to communicate
  • large number of people
  • older generation may not have access or the means to 
  • Example: Ice bucket challenge- ACL donating money and challenging others to and having to dunk an iced bucket of water over your head to raise money for the ACL research.

Petitions

  • cost effective
  • promoted through social media
  • may not represent the majority
  • people may be obliged to sign
  • Example: Sarah's Law - used to sign a petition to make the law go to parliament and become granted
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question 2c

Explain how social values, norms and mores may impact on policy development [7]

Social values are rules shared by most people in a culture or ideas that they hold in value, it is more general guidelines e.g respecting the elderly

Norms are social expectations that guide  behaviour and explain why people act the way they do, keeping in check deviant behaviour. It is expected behaviour that could vary from one culture to another e.g wearing black to mourn in the UK whilst wearing white in China

Mores are morals or 'good' ways of behaving. Norms that a culture considers to serious to break e.g murder

There has been change over time in relation to these. An example of this is Homosexuality where it is no longer illegal as there are more tolerant attitudes. The Wolfenden Committee started a major change of attitude caused by their report in 1957. It recommended ' Homosexual behaviour between consenting adults and in private should no longer be a criminal offence'.The situation today shows the development of the policy where there is equality of age on homosexual intercourse and a right to same sex marriage.

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question 2d

 Discuss campaigns that have resulted in a change in law [8]  Sarah's Law was successful with the Child Sex Offender Disclosure Scheme being introduced where it allows parents, carers or guardians to ask police for information about a person who has contact with their child, or a child close to them, if they're concerned the person may pose a risk. This was backed by the sunday newspaper News of The World. This change in law was following the abduction and murder of 8 year old Sara Payne by convicted child murderer Roy Whiting.Ann Ming's campaign was successful in abolishing the double jeopardy law where it would prevent a person from being tried twice for the same offence. This resulted in a clause in the Criminal Justice Act 2003 where it was successful in abolishing it. This led to the retrial of Billy Dunlop who was eventually convicted of the murder of Julie Hogg, the daughter of Ann Ming.Clare's Law  was successful with the Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme where it gives anyone the right to ask the police if they believe that their partner could be abusive and could have a history of Domestic Abuse.This was following the muder of Clare Woods by her ex partner George Appleton who had a history of Domestic Abuse. Helen's Law was also successful with The Prisoners (Disclosure of Information About Victims) gained royal assent and was passed unopposed.This was following the murder of Helen McCourt by Ian Simms who was released without disclosing the location of her remains. The disclosure scheme states how killers should be refused parole if they do not disclose the location of the victim's body

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question 3a

Describe one physiological theory of criminality [5]

Lombroso was an Italian pschyiatrist who developed theories about criminals. He pioneered the use of scientific methods in criminology.

He argued that the criminal is a seperate species between modern and primitive humans.

He argued the physical shape of the head and face determined the 'born criminal' and criminality was heritable.

Criminals had atavistic features which were biological characteristics from an earlier stage of human development that manifested as a tendency to commit crimes.

Features included large jaws, receeding chins, twisted noses, large ears and long arms relative to lower limbs

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question 3b

Analyse how one genetic theory of criminality may account for Jimmy’s criminal behaviour  [7]

The XYY theory suggests criminality can be attributed to a chromosomal abnormality. Chromosomes are structures within the nucleus which contains our genes, usually every person has 46 chromosomes with the pattern of the person's sex being gender ** in a woman and XY in a man.

There is a genetic condition in which a male has an extra male chromosome making 47 chromosomes and XYY.

Jacobs et al (1965) suggested that men with the XYY syndrome were more aggressive than those with XY. They are over represented in the prison population as there is 15 per 1,000 in prison and only 1 per 1,000 in the general population.

The scenario explains Jimmy had been born with an extra chromosome, he has been charged with violent offences as he is at court with a second charge of grevious bodily harm.

There could be other reasons such as physical appearance, being influenced or a unstable home life.

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question 3c

With reference to Jimmy’s case, describe one individualistic theory of criminality [5]

The Social Learning Theory could be described as the 'hanging around with local criminals' could suggest a learning theory as people learn by watchiing the behaviour of others. If Jimmy's friends are committing crimes, he may copy and join in on those activities.

If they are aggressive, he may feel it is appropriate to act that way too. This could explain his second charge and in court for grevious bodily harm.

Bandura argues that we learn much of our behvaiour by imitating other people also known as 'models' and we are more likely to imitate someone's behaviour if they are of higher status. If we see the behaviour rewarded we are more likely to imitate it.

Bandura et al conducted the Bobo Doll experiement where three groups of 4-5 year olds were shown a film of an adult being verbally and physically aggressive towards a Bobo Doll. Results showed that the children imitated the behaviour depending on the consequences they had observed, by learning through someone else's experience and imitiating the aggressive behaviour if it was praised.

Jimmy may view criminal behaviour as acceptable as his friends are behaving that way.This could be learning experiences or different associations.

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question 3d

Evaluate psychodynamic theory in explaining causes of criminality [8]

Psychodynamic theories of offending are no longer widely accepted by pschyologists for a number of reasons.

There is difficulty with testing as the theories rely on the unconscious mind which is impossible to prove.

There is a tendency for the theories to be able to explin behaviour but only after it happened.

They have attempted to treat offending but haven't been successful

Being extremely time consuming.

Pointed out the importance of childhood experiences and parent-child relationships on offending.

They have identified important variables relating to delinquent behaviour in adolescence.

Explanations have fallen out of favour but are useful for directing later researchers.

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