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  • Created by: caroll
  • Created on: 23-05-11 16:57

Key concepts in Physical Education

·                Competence – Being able to do the skill (Stopping and hitting the ball in hockey)

·                Performance - How well the task is performed (Competing in a swimming race)

·                Creativity – Exploring and experimenting with new ideas (Using tactics in a volleyball match to help win)

·                Healthy, active lifestyles – Understanding what a healthy lifestyle is (Knowing how much exercise you need to do)

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Key processes in Physical Education

·                Developing skills and techniques

·                Decision making

·                Physical and mental capacity

·                Evaluating and improving

·                Making informed choices about active, healthy lifestyles

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Developing skills and techniques

Improving the range, difficulty and quality of skills and techniques and also developing the consistency, precision, control and fluency of performance

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Fundamental motor skills:

·                Running

·                Throwing

·                Jumping

·                Kicking

·                Catching

·                Hitting

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Decision making

Using tactics and strategies, composition and creativity, planning for improved performance and responding effectively during performance

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Different types of decision making in physical activities

·                Invasion games – Football (which pass to make, when to close down an opposition player)

·                Target games – Golf (choice of shot based upon weather conditions or the lie of the ball)

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Different roles in physical activity

·                Performer – Tennis (trying to read an opponent’s serve)

·                Coach/leader – Basketball (use of time-out for strategic reasons)

·                Official – Football (assistant referee deciding if a player is in an offside position)

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Responding appropriately when participating in different roles in physical activity

·                The importance of abiding by rules/codes of behaviour

·                The importance of etiquette and sportsmanship with applied practical examples:

Fair play

Shaking hands with opposition before and after match

Thanking people for their support

Showing concern for others on your team and the opposition’s team

Congratulate everyone for successful techniques

Be respectful to everyone

Don't foul

Don't swear or be abusive

Don't question the referee’s final decision

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Physical and mental capacity

Maintaining and developing physical strength, stamina, speed and flexibility and preparing physically and mentally for involvement in physical activity

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The components of fitness and a healthy, balanced lifestyle

·                Cardiovascular endurance – Cardiovascular system involves transporting oxygen around the body and it includes the heart, the blood and the network of blood vessels (12 Minute Cooper Run)

·                Muscular endurance - The ability of the muscles or a group of muscles to repeatedly contract or keep going without rest (Sit-Up Test)

·                Speed – The ability to move the body quickly (30m Sprint Test)

·                Muscular Strength – The ability of the muscular system to exert force for a period of time (Standing Sergeant Test)

·                Flexibility – The amount or range of movement you have around a joint (Sit and Reach Test)

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Warm Ups

·                Increase temperature (of muscles)

·                To improve performance/technique

·                Prepare body for exercise

·                Raise heart rate/increase blood supply

·                Rehearse skills

·                Mentally prepare/get in the right mood or frame of mind/focus/increase motivation

·                Delay onset of lactic acid/fatigue

·                To increase/enable greater flexibility/loosen joints

·                Reduces risk of muscle strain/reduce injury

·                Improves speed/strength of muscular contractions

·                Raise oxygen uptake/increase O2 supply to muscles

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·                To speed up the removal of lactic acid/waste products

·                Decreases risk of injury/pulling muscle

·                Decreases risk of muscle soreness/cramp/stiffness

·                Prevent blood pooling

·                Prevent feeling tired

·                Gradually decrease heart rate/blood pressure

·                Gradually decrease body temperature

·                Gradually decrease breathing rate/to stop feeling dizzy/faint/sick

·                Psychological benefits/makes you calm down

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Evaluating and improving

Being able to judge the quality and effectiveness of performance, make informed decisions on improving the quality and effectiveness of performance, develop action plans to improve the quality and effectiveness of performance and plan for sustained involvement in physical activity

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Skilful movement

·                Efficiency/economic/effortless - no wasted energy when hitting a ball in tennis

·                Pre-determined - the gymnast knows her routine well before she starts

·                Co-ordinated - the footballer can jump and do a ‘bicycle kick’ successfully

·                Fluent/smooth - the rugby player picks up the ball and passes in one flowing movement

·                Aesthetic - the netball player shoots the ball using the correct technique that looks good

·                Being creative - a footballer can disguise a pass

·                Successful/good technique - a basketballer shows the correct shooting technique

·                Controlled - a volleyball player controls a dig

·                Perform at speed - a netball player passes with speed

·                Consistent - a tennis player serves well every time she serves

·                Learned - a trampolinist learns a new technique of somersault

·                Confident - a cricketer shows confidence when playing a forward defensive shot

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Goal Setting


    • Performance relates to techniques/skills/how well you carry out skills
    • Suitable practical example, set a goal to improve my forehand in tennis
    • Performance also relates to strategies/making the right decision at the right time
    • Get a goal to work on when to use the dummy pass in rugby

Other factors:

    • Both can be motivating
    • Setting a goal to improve your personal best in Athletics
    • Make your goals relevant/achievable (in Netball scoring 9 out of 10 shots/goals)
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Goal Setting


    • Outcome relates to the result of an activity
    • The goal is to win all the remaining home games in netball
    • Outcome goals are also related to how others rate your performance
    • To score a high mark for the gymnastic floor routine

Other factors:

    • Both can be motivating
    • Setting a goal to improve your personal best in Athletics
    • Make your goals relevant/achievable (in Netball scoring 9 out of 10 shots/goals)
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Assessing the body’s readiness for exercise

·                Health screening, including blood pressure and resting heart rate

·                BMI

·                Tests for fitness components

·                The validity of tests and measurements to take into account age, fitness levels and ability

·                The importance of test protocols and Health and Safety considerations

·                Taking into account family history of relevant illnesses and lifestyle of the participant

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Making informed choices about active, healthy lifestyles

Identifying types of physical activity available, identifying different roles within physical activity, linking physical activity with diet, work and rest for personal health and well-being, and making informed decisions about sustained involvement in physical activity

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Seven components of a Healthy Balanced Lifestyle

·         Carbohydrates

·         Fats

·         Proteins

·         Minerals

·         Vitamins

·         Fibres

·         Water

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Characteristics of a Balanced, Healthy Lifestyle

·                Physical health/not getting ill/less prone heart disease/other diseases

·                Less prone to injury/live longer

·                Components of physical fitness improving/keep fit

·                Mental health/feel good/happy/positive feelings

·                Image/self-esteem/confident/feel good aboutyourself

·                Enjoyment/as a hobby

·                Social/friendship

·                Sense of achievement

·                Can be active/keep doing physical activities/be good at an activity/can cope with demands of everyday life

·                Not getting tired easily/offsets fatigue

·                Avoids obesity/being overweight/being underweight/anorexic

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The effects of the following on performance and participation in physical activity

·                Age

·                Gender

·                Disability

·                Smoking

·                Alcohol

·                Over- and under-eating

·                Performance enhancing drugs (steroids, blood doping)

·                Measures/indicators of health and well-being

·                Satisfaction with aspects of life (frequency of positive and negative feelings)

·                Access to green space

·                Level of participation in other activities

·                Positive mental health

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Methods of Training

·                Circuit training

·                Aerobics/aqua aerobics

·                Spin

·                Body pump

·                Pilates

·                Yoga

·                Dance exercise

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Opportunities, pathways and participation in Physical Education

·                Levels of participation in sport and physical activity

·                Reasons for participation and non-participation

·                Specific social and cultural reasons affecting participation

·                School influences on participation

·                Identification of pathways for involvement

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Reasons for participation (positive)

·                Health reasons (management of stress; illness; well-being; life expectancy)

·                Image

·                Enjoyment

·                Social/friendship

·                Hobby

·                Parental/role model influences

·                Vocation/profession

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Reasons for non-participation (negative)

·                Health reasons (including disability)

·                Injury

·                Discrimination

·                Peer pressure

·                Cultural

·                Other pressures/interests

·                The technological/sedentary lifestyle

·                Lack of confidence/self esteem

·                Lack of role model/parental support

·                Lack of opportunity

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Pathways into Participation in Physical Activity

·                Participating (regularly) in activity

·                In PE lessons/NC/classes by participating/coaching/officiating

·                Extra-curricular activities/clubs/school teams

·                Member of external sports teams/exercise clubs

·                Coaching/teaching/leading new skills

·                Officiating/judging in a physical activity

·                Starting off at basic level of activities/other roles

·                Refinement of skills/getting help and advice/being coached/practising

·                Getting to the next tier/level/representing county/moving up the performance pyramid

·                Developing physical health/fitness/following a healthy lifestyle

·                Volunteering to help or get involved

·                As a career/professional (getting qualifications/scholarship)

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Alex Wyke-Ulliott


hi caroll

Alex Wyke-Ulliott


love you



love you more



love you most

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