principles & theories of learning

  • Created by: echubb26
  • Created on: 06-01-21 12:57

theories of learning

cognitive- new to learning skill needs instruction to understand, will make erros

autonomous- performs skill withought concious though/able to focus on other factors

associative- athlete has progressed from thinking about skill

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learning theories

Skinner theory- operant conditioning the use of positive reinforcement to ensure correct repsonses

trial and error, shapes behaviour, manipulates enviroment 

reinforced actions strengthend & incorrect actions weakened using the theory of satisfier. 

observation kearning- Bandura auggests both acceptable and unacceptable behaviour can be learnt by watching & copying

attention-retention- motor production- motivation

social development theory- Vygotsky

inter-psychological learning- from others externall intra-psycholgical learning- others knowledge

constructivism of a skill by using inter & intra learning to allow assesment of performance 

Insight learning (Gestalist theory)

using experience and understanding solve problems relating to skill. use existing knowledge to form idea of general sporting situation

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Psychological influences

personality- 'unique psychological make up, individual personality profile affect techniques linked to competitions and training.

Nature VS Nurtue- characteristics controlled by genes affecting individuals whhilst nurture is the affect if enviroment

Trait theory- individuals are born with traits/characteristics, attempts to predict behaviour in comparioson to personality. (introvert/extrovert)

The social learning approach- behaviour is learnt from significant others by socialisation. 

observe- identify- reinforce- copy

Interactionist perspective- combines traint and social learningto predict behaviour in situations. influenced by genetic and enviromental factors. 

The Lewin- B=F(P*E) behaviour is function of personality & enviroment

Hollanders model 1971- core beliefs- typical response- role related behavior 

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-formed by association with others, can become conditioned by success & reinforced behaviour 

C cognitive- representing beliefs

A affective- concerns feeling/emotion

B behavioural- reflects what you do

attitude change- congitive dissonance, new info cause unease/motivate change

persuasive communication, reduce resistance in attitudes (higher authority)

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drive theory- arousal increases as does performance (in linear relation)

inverted U theory- increased arousal improves performance to a optimum arousal to a certain level then performance deteriorates

catastrophe theory-increased arousal improves performance to an optimum point then there is a dramatic reduction in performance.

zone of optimum functioning- ultimate intrinsic experience from a positive mental attitude. these zones change dependant on athlete and sport nature

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-negative reaction to stress, characterised by nerves, worry & apprehension activated by arousal.


congitive- thinking 

somatic- body repercussions due to stress

competiticve trait- characteristics

competitive state

measuring anxiety- observations, self report assesment (****), physiological testing ie heart monitior

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aggression & assertion

aggression- form of behaviour directed to harm/injure somebody,

hostile aggresion- is intent to cause harm outside of rules

assertive behaviour- act with no intention to harm, no rules broken

causes; pressure, poor officating, history, provoked, loosing, rilvary, nature of sport, arousal, crowd.

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agression theories

instinct theory- aggresion is innate, ernergy needs releasing

not reliable= aggresion is learnt, athletes not aggressive off pitch, no proof

Frustration-hypothesis- triggers frustration as a drive leads to aggression

not reliable= not all frustration leads to aggression, not all aggression from frustration

cue arousal- a stimulus triggers arousal, frustration increases arousal but aggression only occur with a cue

social learning- aggression is learnt, if actions are reinforced they are learnt and copied

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intrisic motivation- behaviour driven by internal rewards

external motivation- behaviour driven by external rewards

tangiable- physical thing able to touch

intangiable- not able to physically touch, an accomplishment or sense of achievement

social facilitation- positive effect presence of spectators has on athletes play

social inhibition- negative effect presence of spectators has on athletes play

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Zajonc model

See the source image 

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attribution theory

weiner's model- See the source image

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learnt helpleness

- belief that faliure is inevitable 

general- 'i am bad at everything'

specific- 'i am bad at a specific skill'

coaches want to develop mastery orientation- ability to see success blame effort in contrast to learnt helpleness laming ability. 


- belief of an individual about their ability in sport

self-effiacy- self confidence in specific situations

self-esteem- feelings of self worth determined how valuable you feel

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Vealeys model of sports confidence

See the source image

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Banduras model of self efficiacy

See the source image

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-someone influencing others helping them achieve their goals

prescribed leader- appointed by outside the group, higher authority

emergent leader- appointed from within an existing group

style of leadership

autocratic approach- leader makes decisions, task oreintated style 

democratic approach- leader seeks consultation from group

laisse-faire style- leader does very little, leaves group to own devices.

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fiedlers contingency model of leadership

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Chelladuras multi dimensional model

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