Process of memory

Memory includes three processes: 

encoding- putting information into your brain and changing information so it can be stored in the brain

storing-  can be stored in long term, short term or sensory (shortest-term element of memory from our senses)

retrieving- accessing information that has been stored in your brain and being able to use it 

1 of 11

Process of memory


Visual encoding- memories stored by visual cues (seeing)

Acoustic encoding- memories stored by sound (lyrics to a song)

Semantic encoding- stored by knowing the meaning (we know words and how/when to use them)

2 of 11

Process of Memory

Types of Memory: long term

Episodic memory: memory of events and experiences can remember who is there, where it was, how you felt, what you did (birthday party)

Semantic memory: facts, knowledge, and meanings you remember ( Paris is the capital of France)

Procedural memory: muscle memory- remembering how to do things. We remember how to do things without thinking about it. (Driving)

3 of 11

Structures of Memory

Multi-store model

The Multi-Store Model of Memory – A Level Psychology

4 of 11

Structures of Memory

Multi-store model description

Sensory- captured by our senses ( when you look at an object the visual image can be remembered at least for a very short time

encoded by senses

Capacity is high 

Duration is very short less than a second 

5 of 11

Structures of Memory

Multi-store model description

Short term memory

Coding- tends to be acoustic by sound (hearing)

Capacity is limited (5-9 items)

Duration is less than 30 sec unless rehearsed 


If the information keeps on being repeated the information will go into your long term memory (maintenance rehearsal)

6 of 11

Structures of Memory

           Multi-store model description

Long term Memory

Coding tends to be semantic

Capacity is unlimited

Duration can be up to a lifetime

7 of 11

Structures of Memory

Primacy and recency effect

  • words at the beginning are remembered more because they are rehearsed so they are in the LTM
  • words at the end of remembered more because they heard recently so they are in the STM
  • Serial Position Effect | SpringerLink
8 of 11

Memory as an Active Process

                       Reconstructive memory

  • people rebuild memory as an active process
  • memory is not a process of exact reproduction of experiences
  • we record pieces of information and change it to make sense to us in our memory 
  • culture can affect the storage and recall
  • we focus on the meaning of events and make an effort afterward to make sense of fragments of memory
9 of 11

Memory as an Active Process

Effort after meaning

 the persistent effort to put unfamiliar ideas into more familiar terms in an attempt to comprehend ambiguous or unfamiliar material.

10 of 11

Factors affecting Memory

                  Factors affecting Memory                    

  •  Inference forgetting may occur if 2 memories compete with each other and similar
  • Context is the situation in which something is happening, it can enhance or diminish the accuracy of memory
  • False Memory is a memory for something that did not happen but feels as if it were true memory
11 of 11


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Memory resources »