Propaganda, 1

Propaganda was used during the Cold War. 

CD Jackson, Eisenhower's assistant, found that propaganda was significant as it represented idealism. 

In West Germany, Amerika Hauser was established, and the Bolshoi Theatre for ballet in Russia. 

The USSR made claims to modernity and culture over the USA, and in the 1960s-70s people expressed their concerns over propaganda being used for dissent.                                                                                                

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Propaganda, 2

In 1623, the International Book Company was set up, followed by the All-Union Association for Cultural Relations. The Moscow Department of Propaganda and Agitation was established too.

By 1956 Krushchev established cultural warfare and the KGB subsidised newspapers to distribute misinformation across developing countries. In 1961 Novosti was set up. 

Peace and Progress was set up by Soviet writers and composers, supposedly independent of the Soviet government. Alongside this, films were made such as The Cranes are Flying, by Mikhail Kalazatov. In 1961 the USSR had its first manned flight and the KGB encouraged enthusiasm. Unlike the New York Soviet expeditions, the American Expedition in Moscow was popular.

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Propaganda, 3

In America, the Smith Mundt Act allowed propaganda. 

The CIA set up Radio Free Europe, and exiles in Europe established Radio Liberty. Alongside this, the United States Information Agency was set by Eisenhower, teaching English, promoting jazz tours, and establishing civil rights. 

The US called their actions public diplomacy and fought ideas that they had lax morals. 

Associated Press disapproved of the US's control of the media. 

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Propaganda, 3

In Hungary, Matyas Rakosi had a cult personality. On April 4th, there was the Day of Liberation, and on May 1st Celebration of Heroes' Square. 

Deification of Stalin was next level, with religious imagery. Ceausescue and Hoxha had similar.

Slansky Trial - 14 people including Slansky and Gomulka were ousted for zionism and tortured for a year, accused of cosmopolitanism. Three survived, all Jewish. 

On 13 January 1953, Stalin accused 9 doctors of the Kremlin polyclinic of attempting to kill Soviet leavers such as Zhdanov, but the trial never resumed as he died.

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Propaganda, 4

In April 1949, the Soviets tested a highly powerful atom bomb and the US feared this would stop their attempts at peace in the middle east, stopping Mao from supporting Ho's communists in Vietnam, and signing for peace with Japan.

The US had to develop a more powerful hydrogen bomb. Acheson asked Paul Nitze to write NSC 68, where the USSR was described as having intentions of world domination - the US needed military strength.

The US embraced NSC 68 in May 1950. Truman knew he would receive criticism from Joe McCarthy, Republican senator, for failing to contain Communism from China. But this was too costly.

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