Revising the Centuries


1600s Lexical/Semantic features

-The second person pronoun ye/you and thou/thee/thy

-Archaic and obsolete terms

-Huge increase in neologisms, known as ''inkhorn terms''

-Pillaging of latin and Greek

-Standardisation of professions 

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1600s Grammatical features

-Archaic syntax, especially in the formation of questions

-The absence of the dummy auxiliary

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1600s Orthographic features

-Non-standard spellings

-Inflections, especially -est and -eth

-Interchangeable letters i/j, y/i, and u/v

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1600s Phonological features

-Inflections especially -est and -eth

-Some spellings arising from difference in regional dialect (Although infrequent)

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1600s Graphological features


-The Long s

-Large and/or decorative letters used to mark discourse structure

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1700s Lexical/Semantic features

-Received Pronunciation is coined

-Neologisms slow after preceding century

-Prescriptive idea of ''correct'' meaning

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1700s Grammatical features

-Capitalisation of nouns

-Recognition of only 2 noun cases (nominative and possessive)


-Children referred to as ''it''

-2 negatives equal an affirmative

-Don't end a sentence with a preposition

-Many of the defining features of the 1800s can also be sen inconsistently 

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1700s Orthographical features

-Basically standardised this century (technically at the beginning, officially at the end)

-Confusion over the correct way to write compound words

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1700s Phonological features

-Emergence of convergence and divergence

-Elocution lessons become fashionable

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1700s Graphological features

-Not a lot of change from 1600s

-Quality and clarity of printed texts improve somewhat

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1800s Lexical/Semantic features

-Coining of 100,000s of new words as the result of Industrial Revolution

-Neologisms created by borrowing affixation, compounding, abbreviation

-Influx of borrowed words from French (Highest rate since medieval times)

-Word class conversions

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1800s Grammatical features

-Auxiliary verbs

-Negative adverbials

-'Double' uses of to be and verb tenses

-Nonstandard uses currently frowned upon

-Nonstandard plurals in noun phrases

-Adverbs missing the conventional lyending

-Comparison adjectives 


-Greater use of the subjunctivbe tense

-The progressive passive is largely absent

-Get/got became more prevalent and were considered unappealing (Probably American influence)

-The split infinitive was identified and fought

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1800s Orthographical features

-Very little change in this area from the 1800s-1900s

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1800s Graphological features

-The long s vanishes in print around 1824 and from handwriting in the second half of this century

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1900s Lexical/Semantic features

-Continued creation of new words extending from the 1800s in the fields of science, technology, media and warfare

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1900s Grammatical features

-Them as a Demonstrative form

-Comparative and superlative forms

-Singular forms of plural numerical expressions

-Alternative personal forms of you

-Possessive forms used as third person reflexive pronouns

-Singular form of be with plurals subject

-Of as an auxiliary

-Ain't and in't

-Using the same form of a verb across the present tense

--The same form throughout the past tense

-Irregular verbs display alternative past tense forms

-Verbs using a past tense form for s present participle never as a past tense negative

-Multiple negation

-Varying relative pronoun

-Absent ly on adverbs Complex prepositions

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1900s Orthographical features

-Very little change in this area from the 1800s-1900s

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1900s Phonological features

-Glottal stops are proven and noticed in the speech of Londoners, having previously only been indentified in Scotland

-BBC English comes into being (1927-60s)

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1900s Graphological features

-Standardisation of printed texts

-Introduction of Times New Roman in 1931

-Increasing use of colour in printed texts 

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2000s Lexical/Semantic features

-Further neologisms relating to technology and science

-Continued borrowing of new words, many from Asian and Middle Eastern sources

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2000s Grammatical features

-Punctuation becomes less standardised, influenced by informality of social media

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2000s Orthographical features

-Move towards non-standard spelling and text speak in informal settings

-Non-standard spelling evident in formal texts, depending on pragmatics

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2000s Phonological features

-Regional dialects become more prevalent due to a rise in divergence and nationalism

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2000s Graphological features

-Multimodal texts

-Emergence of emojis as a language in their own right

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