Cosmological Arguement

Aquinas= 5 ways
1) All things that move are moved. There must be a start
2) All things that exist were caused by something else-God
3)Things do exist. They might not have, yet God must exist
4) A concept of good and evil exists- God is the ultimate God
5) All things serve a purpose> God made it this way

-Universe exists- so it must have a cause
-Something eternal (without begin or end)
-We are presuming something has to be the cause
-The big band theory does not need God
-"God" is not needed
-There might have been GodS
-Pre-scientifc arguement
-Who caused God? 

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The creation story

1) Before day 1 there was chaos(all waters)
2) Light and atmosphere
3)Let there be light and dark
4)Divsion of waters above and below and skies
5)Land and gathered seas
6) Trees and other veg
7)Sun, moon and stars
8) Fish and birds
9) Land creatures
10) Man and Woman 

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Big Bang Theory

1)George Garrow- start of the universe was very hot and small
2)Huge explosion- was hot but cooled, forming hydro=leading to galaxies forming
3)Glaxaxies die and give off carbon and oxygen causing planets E.G. Earth
4)The universe is about 14billion years old( Earth is about 6billion)

In 1927-Belgian Priest- George Le Maitre was the first to propose
-In 1929 Hubble saw RED SHIFT (universe is expanding in all directions) 

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Design Argument (Teleological)

All things have been designed by an intelliegent designer (GOD)> points to 

The pocket watch- Made for a certain purpose and has been assembled perfectly

Isaac Newton-
Having thumbs-Oppoosable thumbs gives us the ability to grip,hold and climb

-We consider one thing as the cause of another- so we could observe other universes but we can't because this is the only universe we know of
-Universes could be made by a comittee of designers and God could of lost interest
-Order is not proof of design 

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Cosmological Revolution

- In the 16th century new scientific development led to a change in the way the people understood God's place in the universe
The Medieval world-view:
-Believed we were in the centre of the universe

-The churches ideas were breaking down due to a new interest in learning including astronomy and science

-He observed sunspots, these proved that the heavens were not unchanging
-The movement of the planets was natural and not by God.

Nicholas Copernicus:
-Concluded that the Earth went around the sun
-Upset church people because they thought they were in the centre of the universe

Affects on religion:
-Christianity no longer had control over science
-God is no longer regarded as the controller 

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Process by which plant and animal life developed from the earliest and most primitive life forms to reach their present state.
>adaptations and change overtime

Natural Selection: Rule of evolution where if an organism has adapted well it will survive but if not it will die

1)Important to the development of the theory of evolution (organ change to meet needs)
2) Bottom of a ladder
3)organs in an organism grow stronger
4) Change is inherited by their offspring

1)Produce more offspring than survive- depending on the environment some of these variations help offspring survive better 

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Evolution and religion

 Does evolution disprove the existence of God?
-The bible says Adam and Eve have been created by God
-The world is complex and  evolution can't explain it all
-God caused Evolution and uses natural selection
- Evolution does not involve suffering
-The laws of physics are  perfect

-Evolution explains how life began- religion does not
-Things evolved they werent designed
-We adapt to our surroundings

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> An event that is contrary to the established laws of nature and attributed to a supernatural cause

>Any amazing or wonderful event

>Something which is beneficial and does not normally happen

>Something that you personally find amazing even if others do not.

Types of miracles in the bible:
1) Healings


3) Raising the dead


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> Proves that God exists- such events have no other explanation  apart from there being a supernatural cause- must of been caused by something outside of nature as the cause has control over nature=God

>They are signs of Gods love and concern for his people

Negatives with the statement 'Miracles prove that God exists'
>Could of been a coincidence or down to luck
>could of been exaggerated/ or  a lie

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>Inbuilt sense of right and wrong can lead us to conclude that God is real
>Augustine- Conscience is God speaking directly to us
>Butler believes it's a guide to distinguish between good and evil

-Freud says consience does not come from God= we are influenced by outside figures
> Mind is divided into ID,Ego and super Ego

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Religious Experiences

Nature: In awe and wonder, amazement of Gods accomplishments
Communication: Through prayer/ feeling Gods prescence
Worship: Touched by Gods spirit

Real experience?
-----Mistaken? Not genuine? Imagination? One person? Under influence? Hallucination? 
+++Faith is strengthened+Genuine+WIlling to die for it+Clear evidence 

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Prejudice- A formed opinion on someone based on their social status, financial situation, gender, age, disabiity, before knowing their story.

Discrimination- Prejudicial and/ or distinguishing treatment of an individual based on their actual or percieved membership in certain group or category

Stereotyping- A thought that may be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things, but that belief may or may not reflect reality.

Why are some people prejudice?
- If some people don't know a group of people
-Uncertainty about the future- encourages scapegoating
-Children may be brought up to be prejudice/racist
-Expectations of various religious groups
-Influenced by the media
-Personal experience 

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Types of prejudice

Racism: Colour of someone's skin determines their ability

Womens rights: Women and men should be treated equally

Ageism: Being prejudice against someone because of their age

Class/lifestyle/looks: Many people from different backgrounds/lifestyles

Disability:Denied access to certain places/service

Religious: Discriminated for their beliefs

Sexism: form of gender prejudice 

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Jewish teachings on prejudice

Genesis 1:27
>All made in the image of God
>Close to God and equal in his sight
>Show love and care like God can
>Be creative

Leviticus :19
>Showing kindness
>'Love thy neighbor as yourself' and 'love the foreigner' 

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Individual responses to prejudice

-Indian but educated in various religions
-Equality between all people
-Assassinated in 1948

Martin Luther King Jr:
-Christian minister
-Degree in theology
-Civil rights champion in southern states (better education and housing for black people)
-Assassinated in 1968
-Organised a bus boycott (Rosa Parks) 
-Led people into peaceful protests
-Speech= harmony, united and equal

Desmond Tutu:
-equal civil rights
-Became first black archbishop of Capetown  

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Fundamentalists + Conservatives


-Bible is the word of God directly written down
-Should be taken literally as everything is true
-Do not accept the scientific theory of evolution
- Fossils are irrelevant because God put them there

-Bible is written with Gods help but in writers own words
-Uses metaphors/similes/symbols etc..
-Not always to be taken literally

-No problem in accepting some form of evolution because they believe that Genesis teaches how the world began

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-Bible is the word of God but with mistakes and that it needs to be understand in modern science
-meaning of the stories is important

-The writers were pre-scientific and do not understand the world as well as we do now 

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Hindu Creation Story

1) No heaven, no earth and no space inbetween
2)Giant cobra floated on the nothingness and asleep in its coils was the diety Vishnu
3)A sound OMM began to fill the nothingness and woke Vishnu
4)Vishnu woke and a giant lotus flower grew from his naval
5)In the middle of the lotus flower sat Brahma
6)Vishnu commanded Brahma to create the world= wind=serpent and Vishnu dissappeared
7)Brahma split the lotus flower into 3- 1 was the heavens, 2 was the earth and 3 the sky
8) Earth was bare. Brahma created vegatation then animals(touch and smell) and movement
9) The world was bristling with life
Does the story conflict with science (origin of the universe)
Yes- Science doesn't believe in serpents and Gods evolving from nothing
No- Talk of a new beginning coming from things that have been destroyed 

Story and Genesis:
+ Both speak of nothingness to start with
-Hindu= OM Genesis= Just started 

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Genesis 1 + 2

Genesis 1)
-God creates in 6 days
-Adam and Eve are created last
-Adam and Eve are created in Gods image
-The creation is good
-God gives Adam and Eve authority
-God created Adam
-God created the universe
-God made Adam and Eve to the rest of creation(created to be together)
-God gives Adam authority
Genesis 2)
-Starts on day 7
-Adam is created before Eve and plants
-Adam is created from dust and he breathes life into Adam
-Not good for a man to be alone (Eve is there to help Adam)

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Views on Genesis

- How could you be certain which one is correct if they both contradict eachother?

-They both speak of more or less the same thing 

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Absolute truth vs evolving truth

Absolute truth:
-True for all people at all times
-Does not change
E.g. The laws of physics or the fact that everyone is mortal

Evolving Truth:
-Truth changes and evolves
-Truth is always relative and not fixed
E.g. Womens roles, segragation, world being flat

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Problem of Evil + Suffering

Problem of Evil:
-If God was omnibenevolent he would want to stop it from happening
-If God was omnipotent he would be able to stop it
-If God is omniscient he should know how to stop it

Problem of Suffering:
-For theists it questions their faith- why would God allow suffering?
-For athiests they just believe it's part of life

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Natural Suffering:
-Something we can't prevent
E.g. natural disasters

Whose fault?
-Some believe God is to blame, but also that even though God created the Earth he is not responsible for the disasters

Man made suffering:
-Result of peoples actions

Whose fault?
-Some people would wonder why God gave his people free will if they were going to abuse it

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Purpose of suffering?

Suffering is a punishment sent by god
Suffering is a test
Suffering is a great mystery
Human beings create suffering, not God
Suffering is the result of original sin
Suffering has a purpose 

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The book of Job

1) Job was a man who had everything but still he feared God and shunned evil. God and Satan noticed this and Satan said that he only worshipped God because his life was perfect. So God allowed Satan to test his faith by taking and killing some of his cattle, and even his children.

Job didn't question God and his faith only strengthened

2)Shows hs true beliefs and the amount of faith he had-proves he does actually love God 

3)Not a fair test

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How does suffering challenge Gods goodness?

Many people believe Good is good (he is the creator and he created the world for us) but he also creted natural suffering for example tsunamis and earthquakes. Why?

Although God made promises and blessings for people, throughout history he hasn't been there for example the holocaust

God gave us guidance on how to live our lives, but he also gave us free will. People are able to choose not to follow his rules= suffering

Not everyone who makes people suffer are punished. Small crimes have been committed- punished. Big crimes- not punished. 

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Jewish/Hindu explanation for suffering

In genesis 'The fall' suggests that man is the reason for disharmony in the world.Free will. Consequences of disobeying god leads to suffering.

Problem with this explanation:
- Unjust suffering

How is suffering explained in Deutronomy Ch8 v5?
- Suffering comes from God- not to do it again

Problem with this explanation:
Again innocent people suffer

Hindu explanation :
Suffering is there for a reason- result of samchilla karma (accumulated karma)- ultimate justice for good and evil. 

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- Some believe that God is dead because he didnt help during the period of the holocaust
-Some people believe that because some survived it meant theat God defeated the Nazis
- Some accept that it is part of Gods will

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Types of Evil

Impersonal Force:
- Some people believe that people are drawn into doing bad things
-Something beyond their control 
+ Logical explanation
- If it is irrestistable than why have some people resisted it?

Psychological phenomenon:
-Caused by their upbringing / society
-Result of a damaged mind
-Result of bad experiences
+Good evidence (science)
-Some people may not have brain impacts

-Devil who can trick people
+Represents the struggle between good and evil
- What about non-believers? 

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Religious explanations for Evil

- God created evila nd he controls it
-Satan represents the tendency people have towards evil
-God must have created Evil for a good reason
-Allow people to have choices
-If everyone followed God- Evil would have no power
Response- complete obedience to God

-Cycle of deat, birth and rebirth
-Story of Rama and Sila- when good triumphs over evil
- God is the sun therefore cannot be the cause of evil
-Evil is an absence of God
Response- Medititaion

Similar- Both have a purpose and God can defeat it
Different- Jews believe God has allowed free will- Hindus belive God is the sun 

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