Sport and society and the role of technology in physical activity and sport


Concepts of physical activity

characteristics: key features used to identify a particular concept (enjoying physical recreation or serious about sport)

continuum: scale representing gradual change

sporting development continuum:participation in various forms of physical activity at various stages of development

leisure: free time during which individuals can choose to do

participation levels: emphasis on taking part recreationally with enjoyment as a key motivator

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Characteristics of physical recreation

‘active aspect of leisure’

leisure time is free time which people can choose to take part in physical activity. if people choose to take part in physical activity there tends to be a focus on participation rather than winning.

  • fun and enjoyable
  • physically energetic
  • it’s a choice
  • tends to be adults 
  • flexible in nature
  • self-officiated
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Functions (benefits) of physical recreation for in

  • increase in health and fitness
  • provides a challenge — lead to sense of achievement — increase in self-esteem/confidence
  • chance to destress
  • help socialise and meet new people
  • provides a sense of fun and enjoyment
  • participation at own level rather than trying to beat others 
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Functions (benefits) of physical recreation for a

  • reduces the strain on the NHS
  • lowers obesity rates
  • increase social integration and improve community cohesion
  • economic benefits — people use the facilities and buy equipment
  • social control and reduces crime rates due to more people participating
  • more chance of people progressing through to performance/elite
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Key characteristics of sport

sport can be viewed as a serious and/or competitive experience

  • highly structured and set rules
  • use of specialist equipment
  • officials are present/appointed by NGBs
  • strategies and tactics are involved
  • intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are received as a result of success
  • high skill levels are visible in performance
  • high levels of commitment/training are involved
  • winning is important — it’s serious
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Functions (benefits) of sport on an individual

  • improve health, fitness and skill levels
  • self-confidence increases as a result in improved skill levels
  • increase social opportunities; communicate, socialise and work as part of a team in a sports club
  • positive attitudes such as fair play and sportsmanship
  • can influence a person’s general behaviour
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Functions (benefits) of sport on society

  • decrease the strain on NHS
  • decrease obesity levels
  • positive use of free time means reduced crime rates
  • increase in social integration by different socio-economic and ethnic groups participating together
  • economic benefits are people spend more money on joining clubs, buying equipment and kit
  • employment opportunities may also increase as opportunities may be created
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  • perceived risk: a challenge that stimulates a sense of danger and adventure for beginners or inexperienced performers in a safe environment, with danger minimalised via stringent safety measures
  • school sport partnership: the creation of increased opportunities for school sport via junior/primary schools working together with secondary schools
  • school games: initiative to increase participation in school sport from intra/inter-school through to county and national levels
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Key characteristics of PE

the national curriculum was introduced following the 1988 education reform act

  • it is compulsory
  • formally taught lessons
  • 4 key stages from ages 5-16
  • primary school is known as the foundation level
  • teachers are in charge of planning and delivering lessons
  • it’s in school time
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Objectives of PE curriculum

  • health and fitness
  • self-esteem
  • mental skills
  • physical skills
  • social skills
  • active leisure
  • leadership
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Outdoor education as part of the national curricul

Outdoor adventurous activities

  • teamwork
  • social skills
  • leadership skills
  • self-discovery
  • self-esteem
  • knowledge of natural environment
  • awareness of safety
  • perceived risk
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PE departments struggle with OAA

  • a lack of time of curriculum
  • a lack of money to purchase specialist equipment 
  • a lack of qualified or motivated staff

location can be a problem trying to include OAA in their curriculum; may not have enough space or be able to travel to facilities. parents worry about health and safety and can become a barrier.

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A triangular model of PE

high quality PE only exists when all 3 are supplied:


  • national curriculum PE is compulsory from 5-16
  • range of activities 
  • range of roles — performer, coach and official 


  • experienced organised sport
  • extra-curricular activities with a competitive element
  • inter and intra school sports competitions


  • non-competitive physical activity
  • open to all for enjoyment
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Key characteristics and aims of sport

  • school sport is different to PE as it mostly occurs in extracurricular time as a choice for pupils
  • school sport is competitive and promoted through governing bodies
  • schools will use specialist coaches in their extra-curriculum to increase opportunities and utilise their specialisms
  • school sport can increase a pupils self-confidence and esteem
  • school sport can encourage new friendship groups to firm
  • improve cognitive skills can result in improved decision making and have an impact on academic achievement
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Physical recreation and sport

National curriculum for PE…

  • Available to all/voluntary/choice
  • Emphasis on participation
  • Varied effort/commitment required
  • rules can be modified 
  • self-officiated
  • mainly intrinsic rewards
  • varied skill level
  • basic equipment/own clothes worn

School sport…

  • more selective (for some, an occupation)
  • emphasis on winning
  • high levels of effort/commitment
  • set rules
  • external officials
  • extrinsic rewards available for success
  • higher skills/fitness levels
  • high tech equipment and clothing worn
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Similarities and differences between physical recr

Physical recreation…

  • voluntary/choice
  • persons free time
  • informal and relaxed
  • participants control activity themselves
  • participation level
  • simple organisational structure

Physical education…

  • compulsory
  • in school time 
  • formal teaching and learning
  • teacher in charge
  • foundation level at primary school
  • highly structured
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Comparison between PE and school sport

National curriculum for PE…

  • in lesson time
  • compulsory
  • for all
  • emphasis on taking part
  • teacher led
  • wide variety of activities experienced

School sport…

  • in free time/extra-curricular
  • element of choice
  • for the chosen few; elitist
  • emphasis on winning
  • coaches involved
  • specialisms developed
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Personal factors to develop as an elite

  • commitment and self-discipline
  • determination to succeed 
  • single minded
  • highly motivated 
  • willing to self-sacrifice
  • high pain tolerance
  • high levels of self-confidence and self-efficacy
  • highly skilled/naturally talented
  • high level of physical fitness
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Social and cultural factors to develop as an elite

  • high socio-economic status
  • evidence of equal opportunities and anti-discriminatory practice within a sport and a setting of equity targets
  • high quality, supportive educational provision
  • structured levels of competition to progress through
  • high levels of media coverage and role models to aspire too
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UK sport for elite performance

  • single focus on developing high performance sport in UK.
  • Primary role to strategically invest and distribute national lottery funding for elite performers.
  • They distribute funding through two main channels: world class funding and athlete personal awards.
  • Also provide financial support for EIS, BOA and BPA.
  • UK sport is nations high performance sports agency, investing in Olympic and Paralympic sport.
  • Run centralised support services across the UK including ‘world class coaches’ this is delivered in conjunction with sports coach UK.
  • Also provides talent id programmes with EIS providing host venues.
  • As part of these programmes, UK sport keen to develop lifestyles in young performers which enable elite performer progression.
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English institutes of sport for elite performance

  • subsidiary of UK sport and wholly owned by them.
  • Receives a grant of £40 million every 4 years from UK sport and also creates its own income by offering services to NGBs.
  • During 2012, NGBs invested £6.1m in EIS services to support their athletes development.
  • Operates ‘world class performance’ environment via 9 ‘high performance’ centres and other training centres, Bisham abbey: team GB rehab unit.
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NGBs for elite performance

  • use regional scouts and talent ID schemes to identify young sporting talent, once identified, needs supporting.
  • They make decisions on who receives funding.
  • Work with EIS and UK sport to support elites, responsible for sport specific coaching awards.
  • Lawn tennis association offers 5 step process to develop elites.
  • Atheltes need to be part of development training squads with progressive competition levels to develop talents.
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Whole sport plans for elite performance

  • lottery funded, sport England approved outline of how NGB will increase participation and identify and develop talent.
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Why is talent identification important?

  • all potential performers can be screened
  • performers can be directed to sports most suited to their talents
  • development process accelerated as result of info gained
  • efficient use can be made of available funding for talent ID schemes
  • chances of producing medallists are improved
  • provide co-ordinated approach between organisations
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Disadvantages of talent identification

  • may miss late developers
  • require high levels of funding 
  • require large number to be tested to be of use
  • no guarantees of success
  • many sports in competition for same talent pool
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Testing facilities of high standard

Analysis of performers via clear database

Links between organisations ensure co-ordinated approach

Equal opportunities for all to apply

National development squads/programmes exist to progress

Talent spotting via high quality coaches

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Performance pathway team

combination of EIS and UK sport expertise used to identify and develop world class talent.

EIS has identified a number of areas of support as important for the identification and talent development:

  • pathway front-line technical solutions: designed to meet specific needs of each sport when identifying and developing talent
  • pathway education: provides educational opportunities for development coaches, covering a variety of topics linked to elite performer development
  • pathway analytics: gives sports the ability to provide meaningful measurements of effectiveness of pathways by using a range of diagnostic tools or take a PHC
  • performance pathway health check (PHC): important as provides evaluation of systems and practices supporting development of potential winners in any sport. reviews long term vision and strategy for development and considers coaching and training to develop.
  • pathway strategy: designed to assist sports to develop and place a clear pathway
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World class performance programme

  • UK sport developed a funding philosophy which reflects the potentially long journeys to the top of their performance programmes.
  • Two distinct levels; podium and podium potential.
  • Podium; support sports and athletes with realistic medal capabilities and max of 4 years away from podium.
  • Podium potential; support stage of pathway beneath podium, demonstrated realistic medal winning capabilities, 4-6 years away from podium.
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Gold event series

  • UK Sport is the lead agency attempting to ensure the UK successfully bids to host and stage major sporting events.
  • Gold Event Series is a flagship programme, targeting 100 international sporting events, IAAF World Athletics Championships 2017, UCI World Track Cycling Championships 2016. UK Sport works with the host location and NGB to develop a detailed business plan.
  • Objectives; support high performance success, create high profile opportunities, demonstrate the legacy of London 2012 and Glasgow 2014, driving positive economic and social impacts for the UK.
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Talent identification and development programmes

  • lead agency in running talent ID programmes with national institutes of sport acting as host venues.
  • co-ordinated work of EIS and UK sport supporting talent identification and development.
  • wants to drive forward Olympic performance pathways to ensure continued success.
  • frontline technical solutions, create a talent profile to predict Olympic potential or positive transfer from one sport to another (Rebecca Romero, rowing to cycling).
  • provides knowledge for talent development managers/coaches in identifying and developing.
  • pathway analytics enables sports to measure and benchmark the effectiveness of their performance using a talent health check, every 4 years.
  • discusses topics such as age transition, retention/attrition rates.
  • talent search involves general public and sports community, can submit a form to UK sport.
  • testing then assessed via medical screening, performance lifestyle workshops and psych assessments, confirmation phase then results tracked to see if eligible for funding.
  • world class talent transfer to explore potential to achieve elite level in another sport.
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Ethics in sport

  • Amateurism: 19th C code or ideal of sporting ethics, developed among the upper then middle classes. elite sport was dominated by upper and middle classes who had a high status in sport and society, higher than professionals. evident in fair play/sportsmanship and rugby union have to call the ref sir.
  • Olympic oath: written by baron de Coubertin, founder of modern Olympic games, first taken at 1920 summer Olympics in Antwerp. promise made by 1 athlete as a representative of participating competitors, 1 judge as a representative of the Olympic officials who commit to impartiality at the opening ceremony. still relevant in modern day sport as Olympics viewed by large numbers of people as a festival of sport many examples of wrongdoings. questions the relevance of the oath.
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  • playing by the unwritten rules to a high code of ethics. 
  • fairness, self-control and respect. 
  • high levels of etiquette to ensure fair play is evident. 
  • play with positive spirit with respect shown. e.g. footballers returning ball to opposition when kicked out of play to allow injured player to have treatment. under attack as winning more important. negative reputation for simulation/diving in penalty area to unfairly win penalty. violent actions increasing or question ref decisions

encouraged by…

  • use of NGB campaigns promoting
  • giving of awards for fair play to encourage, providing positive role models
  • use of technology to help officials make decisions
  • introduction of NGB rules promoting fair play
  • punishing foul play and unsporting behaviour
  • drug testing to ensure fairness
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bending (not breaking) rules without getting caught.


  • delaying play at restart to get back in defence
  • time wasting when ahead in game
  • verbally insulting opponent to distract or upset
  • psyching out an opponent at pre match press conference
  • taking time out when not needed to upset rhythm 
  • deliberate deception of official to gain advantage
  • over-reacting to a challenge in a bid to put pressure on ref to book or send off opponent
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Win ethic

second isn’t an option and outcome is all that matters. ‘Lombardic ethic; winning isn’t sometimes it’s all time’. e.g. rugby coaches used fake blood capsules to mimic blood injury so kicker can enter field. winning is all that matters when rewards are so high and livelihoods at stake.

evident in following examples…

  • no drawn games
  • managers/coaches fired if unsuccessful 
  • high amounts of deviance
  • media praise and negativity 
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Positive deviance

  • behaviour outside norms of society but no breaking rules. e.g. athlete overtraining or compete even though injured. Paula Radcliffe 2004 Athens Olympic, injured but pulled out half way.
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Negative deviance

behaviour against norms and detrimental effect on society. 


  • taking illegal performance enhancing drugs
  • deliberately fouling/harming an opponent through aggression/violent actions
  • accepting bribe to lose, match fixing
  • diving to win penalty/free kick
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Causes of violence in sport

pre-match media hype and intense build up can over psych a performer and lead to over aggression. frustration with decisions can create sense of injustice and leads to violence or from result of abuse/provocation from opponents/crowd.

  • Win ethic and high rewards for success
  • Importance/emotional intensity
  • Nature of sport
  • National governing bodies too lenient with punishments
  • Excitement/over-arousal
  • Ref decisions are poor, leads to frustration 
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Strategies to prevent violence

  • remove athlete or substitute
  • punish aggressive behaviour e.g. fine or match ban
  • increase peer pressure to act less aggressive
  • educate performer/reinforce assertive behaviour
  • positive role model behaviour
  • highlight responsibility to team/negative impact if banned
  • decrease emphasis on winning 
  • stress management techniques with sport psychologist
  • improving fitness to decrease fatigue
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violence cont.

  • frustration from officials can be decreased by having more refs. play can be stopped and video analysis used. e.g. rugby, television match official (TMO) reviews plays by looking at TV when asked to buy on field ref.
  • if lack of punishment is a cause, then law needs to apply tougher sanctions. longer bans, higher fines or deduction of points. in extremes, court action or prison sentence (rangers player Ferguson, 3-month prison for head **** on Raith rovers player McStay 1994)
  • NGB of sport where aggressive actions occurred is responsible for discouraging violence and promoting higher behaviour standards. 
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Actions preventing violence

  • supporting official decisions with video, changing/clarifying rules on violent acts and training refs to diffuse situations
  • punishing violence missed after the match and taking action
  • post-match video evidence worthy of further investigation. e.g. rugby on report system allows ref who sees foul play to highlight incident to independent reviewers.
  • promoting performers with good records
  • imposing punishment
  • introduce education campaigns linked to fair play
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Implications of violence

  • lower attendances
  • declining participation
  • negative media coverage
  • lower sponsorship
  • negative role models encouraging increase in poor behaviour
  • increases NGB pressure to introduce strategies to decrease aggressive behaviour 
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Causes of violence (spectators)

football hooliganism causes: 

  • emotional intensity and ritual importance of the event
  • too much drunk and high from drugs
  • pre-match media hype stirring up tensions
  • poor policing, stewarding and crowd control
  • lack of effective deterrents and punishments to discourage individuals from involving themselves
  • diminished responsibility; organised violence and peer pressure 
  • working class reaction who perceive middle class taking over
  • poor officiating /frustration 
  • violence from athletes
  • religious discord, e.g. catholic and protestant, Celtic vs rangers
  • negative violent reaction occurring from chants
  • young males displaying their masculinity from adrenaline
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Strategies for preventing violence (spectators)

  • bans/control on alcohol sales
  • increase used of police intelligence
  • imposing tough deterrents such as bans, fines and prosecution
  • CCTV to identify and eject/arrest
  • removal of terraces, build all-seater stadiums, segregate fans, family zones to create better atmosphere
  • encouraging responsible media reporting before, decreasing hype and tensions
  • playing games at kick off times imposed by police
  • passing specific laws preventing trespass on pitch
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Implications of violence (spectators)

  • image of football declined, participation fell
  • spectator attendance fell, decrease in gate receipts
  • more stringent security, negatively impacted law-abiding fans
  • implications for clubs in lower leagues: increasing costs of security and police.
  • English fans portrayed nationally and internationally as violent thugs out of control. negative relations with other countries and bids to host events. effects commercial deals, sponsorship and cup competitions.
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Social reasons for drugs

  • win-at-all-costs attitude which dominates modern-day elite sport
  • fame and fortune attached to success at elite level
  • high pressure levels to win from different sources 
  • lack of effective detergents + firm belief they’ll get away with it and not be caught
  • poor role models set bad example that it’s viewed as acceptable
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Anabolic steroids

artificially produced hormones, e.g. THG

  • aid protein storage
  • promote muscle growth and development
  • leads to increased strength and power
  • less fat in muscle
  • improve body capacity to train for longer at higher intensity
  • decreased fatigue

power athletes, e.g. sprinters

  • liver damage
  • heart and immune system damage
  • acne
  • behaviour changes
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Beta blockers

calm down, decrease anxiety by counteracting adrenaline so doesn’t bind to nerve receptors

  • improve accuracy in precision sport
  • calm performance anxiety
  • keeps HR low and decreased tremble in hand
  • widens arteries, allows increased blood flow and reduced spasms

high precision sports, e.g. archery, snooker and golf

  • tiredness due to low BP
  • slower HR which affects aerobic capacity
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natural hormone produced by kidneys to increase RBC. artificially manufactured to increase Hb

  • stimulates RBC production, increase in oxygen-carrying capacity
  • increased work amount
  • increases endurance and delays fatigue onset
  • carry on for longer and recover faster

endurance performers who need effective O2 transport, e.g. cyclists and runners

  • blood clots
  • stroke
  • death
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natural hormone produced by kidneys to increase RBC. artificially manufactured to increase Hb

  • stimulates RBC production, increase in oxygen-carrying capacity
  • increased work amount
  • increases endurance and delays fatigue onset
  • carry on for longer and recover faster

endurance performers who need effective O2 transport, e.g. cyclists and runners

  • blood clots
  • stroke
  • death
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Positive/negative implications to sport and perfor

  • threatens the spirit and integrity of sport
  • cheating and it negatively damages the reputation and decreases interest
  • sports become associated with drug cheats such as lance Armstrong and cycling
  • drugs create suspicion which clouds the success of clean athletes
  • provides negative role models to children and developing young athletes in the sport who perceive they can’t compete if they don’t take drugs
  • can positively impact performance and bring fame and fortune for those that evade detection
  • damaging to performers health 
  • social consequences as athletes involved in doping may lose their good reputation following a positive test
  • future career prospects impacted, loss of income and sponsorship deals
  • legal action with fines, banned from competition and stripped of medals and earnings or jail
  • social isolation from peers and negative effect on individuals emotional and psychological well-being
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Strategies for elimination of drugs

  • UK anti-doping protects UK sport from threat of taking and doping.
  • administers the testing programmes and has anti-doping strategies to eliminate usage.
  • they work with athletes and support staff to increase knowledge and understanding of drug dangers and moral issues associated with doping.
  • promote ethically fair, drug free sport to all athletes.
  • investment in drug detection technology, science and medicine to prevent and detect.
  • work in a co-ordinated manner with other organisations (WADA and NGB’s)
  • co-operative response needed when trying to develop and enforce stricter testing procedures to catch out takers
  • random testing, out of competition testing and whereabouts system
  • when detected and caught need to punish harshly to act as a deterrent
  • important to adopt a standardised, consistent approach between different countries and sports when punishing cheats so clean athletes gain confidence from a unified system.
  • positive role models should promote ethically fair, drug free sport
  • cheats should be named and shamed to dissuade others
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Strategies cont.

DOPING = drug-free culture created by education programmes; organisation involved in detection and enforcement need to work together; punishments need to be harsher; investment required for new testing programmes and tech; name and shame negative role models; guilty lose funding and sponsorship deals


  • hard to gain immediate access to athletes training abroad
  • ongoing development of new drugs/masking agents which keep performers a step ahead of testers
  • drugs taken accidentally so some claim innocence even though they are responsible
  • different countries and sports have different rules and procedures so hard to get unified approach. 
  • unified approach would allow equality, clarification, shared costs of testing
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For drug taking

  • battle against drugs is expensive and time consuming
  • drugs are easy to access and hard to eliminate. money spent on drugs instead spent on participation initiatives and investment in elite sport
  • detection not effective, testers behind as new drugs available and masking agents developed
  • hard to define what is a ‘drug’ compared to a legal supplement
  • drugs sometimes taken accidentally
  • sacrifices made by performer is own personal choice
  • if everyone takes it levels the playing field and increases performance standards
  • if taking is monitored, health risks are lessened
  • athletes don’t ask to be role models and individuals have the right to choose as its their body
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Against drug taking

  • health risks and dangerous side effects
  • negative role models who set a poor example to youths
  • gives negative image to certain sports
  • pressure to take increases from coaches and peers
  • success should be about hard work and natural talent, drugs outside this concept
  • give unfair advantage and are immoral, against fair play ethic.
  • taking is cheating
  • only richer countries can afford
  • variety of different negative consequences
  • illegal
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Sport and the law

  • includes laws, regulations and judicial decisions that govern sports/athletes who perform. lots of injuries occur and not seen as a side effect of participating in sport but can be a deliberate act which is illegal .e.g. criminal cases for punches in football, resulting in careers ending.
  • civil claims for damages (injuries or loss of earnings) made against those committed the act. to be successful claims made must prove the act was outside playing culture.
  • loss of earnings may result from inequality issue (USA women soccer team, male paid x4 more, despite generating less money) or legal injustice.
  • performers are employees and should have some employment rights as other workers. rights improved by Bosman ruling in 1995 so professional footballers in EU had right to move freely to another employer at end of contract and existing club couldn’t demand a transfer fee or retain playing licence.
  • contracts with sponsors; Oakley brought action golfer Rory McIlroy when he left the sportswear company without allowing it the right of first refusal before he signed with Nike. restraint of trade: action that interferes with free competition in a market, in sport this may involve a clause in a contract which restricts a person’s right to carry out their profession.
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Sports legislation and officials

  • negligence is when someone fails to take reasonable care for another person to avoid any dangers that could cause them harm. officials have a duty of care towards participants to make sure that all dangers around them are eliminated so they can take part in a contest in a safe environment. if they don’t keep participants safe, they are seen as negligent.
  • occurs at amateur and professional level. e.g. rugby some court cases have highlighted the position whereby a referee can be found liable for injuries sustained by a player in the game. Alport v Wilbraham claim against a rugby referee failed, Alport was left paralysed from the neck down following a scrum collapse. argued that the referee had failed to ensure that the scrum had been adequately controlled. court preferred evidence of defendant and dismissed claimants claim for compensation.
  • continue to be litigation against refs and officials. need to do everything in power to ensure they aren’t negligent in the performance of their duties.
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Sports legislation and coaches

  • legal obligation to take reasonable measures to eliminate all risks and dangers. need to be aware of their legal responsibilities, especially with respect to the advice they give sports performers and the way they manage and supervise participation.

legal responsibilities…

  • health and safety: access to first aid and means to contact emergency services. liable if standards and practices weren’t followed.
  • protection from abuse: protect children from emotional and physical. organisations should have a policy statement and guidelines regarding abuse. 
  • supplements: legal and ethical responsibility to educate athletes on drug use and abuse and provide advice on nutrition and supplements to enhance performance.
  • duty of care: ensuring athletes safety and welfare can be sue to legal or moral duty of care.

liability issues only arise if incident occurs and can be demonstrated that the risk was foreseeable but no action taken. those in charge have to act in loco parentis, act as a parent would. when working with children and young people should follow to demonstrate care: up to date contact and medical details, registers of attendance, maintaining appropriate supervision ratios, first aid available, DBS clearance, risk assessment.

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Sport legislation and spectators

act within law. illegal to trespass onto field and chant in racist manner. applicable to football.

measures to overcome hooliganism:

  • removal of perimeter fences and terraces, all seater stadia to replace terraces
  • control of alcohol sales on the way to and at ground
  • specified kick off times from police
  • increased security and police presence, intelligence gathering, improved police liaison 
  • tougher deterrents
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Legislation to control behaviour

  • occupiers liability act 1957. occupier of a premises owes a common duty of care to its visitors. occupier in charge of premises while visitor is someone that’s invited or permitted to be at premises.
  • safety of sports grounds act 1975. protects all spectators and covers all grounds in sport.
  • sporting events (control of alcohol) act 1985. ban alcohol possession or journey. empowered magistrates to impose conditions on licensed premises within sports grounds to ensure no alcohol can be sold during a match.
  • fire safety and safety of places of sport act 1987. fire security certificate/license is gained from local authority for event to happen. sets max no of spectators allowed in and stands have to be fire-proof.
  • football spectators 1989. allows banning orders to be put on individuals who’ve committed offences. prevents from attending events for a certain time at home or abroad.
  • football (offences) act 1991. prevent throwing off missiles, chanting of racist remarks or trespassing onto field. supporters face legal consequences for behaviour.
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Advantages to sport as a result of golden triangle

  • increased income to sport allows events to be televised. money can be spent at all levels.
  • increased promotion of sport attract more fans and increase popularity
  • increased sponsorship and income from business sources pay for advertising at grounds and sporting events
  • sports are organised and funded which improves the way they’re run
  • improved facilities benefit performer and spectator alike.
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Disadvantages to sport as a result of golden trian

  • sensationalist media reporting may focus too much on negative aspects
  • media and sponsors dictate kick off times and scheduling events detriment performers and spectators
  • media and sponsors can change nature of sporting activity
  • media only televise already popular, high profile sports
  • media and sponsors can be too demanding on elite and coaches (appearances and interviews)
  • sponsorship deals increase pressure to win to maintain contracts
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Golden triangle cont.

  • media: use sport to gain viewers and increase income and advertising revenue. info and knowledge gained from what they’ve seen/heard in media. media presence turned sport into a highly marketable commodity.
  • Ofcom code on sports and other listed and designated events provides a series of regulations designed to protect the availability of major listed events. list of ring-fenced sporting events has declined as satellite channels offer riches that authorities can’t refuse.
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Reasons for continued ring fencing of major events

  • access the widest number and range of viewers
  • avoid restricting coverage to subscription channels available only to those who can afford
  • increase geographical access for all viewers
  • enable viewing of certain events that are seen as part of UK’s sporting culture
  • enable access to events freely available to all to view (Olympic games)
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Characteristics attractive to media

  • high levels of skill for viewers to watch and admire, comes through competitive well-matched competition
  • visually appealing and demonstrate physical challenge, excitement and aggression
  • easily understood with simple rule structures
  • event is easily to televise and has short timescale that fits in busy schedules
  • nationally relevant with easily identifiable personalities and role models
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Advantages of media coverage

  • increases sport profile and performers
  • increased participation levels as encourages other to take it up
  • more variations of sport developed to make it more ‘media friendly’ so more matches to watch
  • higher income levels and more appealing to sponsors, increased commercial opportunities that increased financial gain
  • increased performance standards and behaviour
  • rule changes lead to speeding up of action/more entertainment
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Disadvantages of media coverage

  • NGBs/athletes lose control. traditional nature lost as adapted to suit demands
  • media control location, kick off times and seasons don’t want boredom or lower attendance
  • coverage inequalities, football over squash. certain prestigious events now only available on satellite TV that requires a subscription.
  • media and sponsors demand negatively impact on high-level performers (appearances and interviews)
  • media can over-sensationalise/dramatise, win-at-all costs attitude develops due to high rewards on offer leading to negative acts
  • more play breaks can disrupt experience
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Reasons why sport is attractive as a commercial en

  • extensive media coverage
  • gains large audiences, viewing figures and high-ticket sales
  • links to professional/high profile sport
  • players are contracted to perform with or endorse products
  • sport offers extensive advertising, merchandising or sponsorship opportunities
  • winning is important as creates link with success
  • sport is media friendly/entertaining
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How does commercialisation happen?

  • increased sales and promotion of product
  • increased brand awareness
  • improved company image linked to healthy image of sport
  • opportunities to entertain clients via corporate hospitality
  • decreasing amount of tax, a company pays
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Positive effects of sponsorship/commercial deals

increased wages, prize money and extrinsic rewards

increased availability of professional contracts where performers are able to devote themselves

performers in public eye and more well-known so need to maintain discipline and behave appropriately to protect positive image

increased funding to pay for access to high-quality

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Negative effects of sponsorship/commercial deals

increased pressure to win and win-at-all-costs attitude to maintain high-level prize money etc

increase in deviant behaviour due to increased pressure to win

performers treated as commodities, sponsors too demanding

inequality of funding means missed opportunities

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Impact of increased media coverage and commerciali

  • positive effects: higher profile as more media coverage, increased public awareness. increased salaries. increased funding means they can invest money into improving playing squads and support systems. media coverage enables more analysis and learn from other coaches.
  • negative effects: intense pressure to be successful and win. high level of public expectation and can easily lose jobs. expectation to deal with media and answer questions can be difficult. inequalities means it’s harder to attract the best high-level performers so financially disadvantaged.
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Iimpact of increased media coverage and commercial

  • positives: increased profile, increased public awareness. increase in salary and full-time job opportunities. increased funding to invest to improve standards and increased ability to learn from other officials. increased funding to invest in tech to aid officials in decision making.
  • negatives: increased pressure to get decision rights. increased expectation to respond to enquiries and give interviews explaining decisions. risk of demotion or job loss if faulty decision highlighted. tech to aid officials in decision making that isn’t available in all levels. officials dependent on media tech.
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Impact of increased media coverage and commerciali

positive effects:

  • increased performance standards, high level of excitement and entertainment
  • improved quality of facilities
  • improved viewing experience via innovations such as team march to create loyalty
  • increased access
  • development of more variations of format
  • more funding available to provide entertainment e.g. cheerleaders
  • rule changes to provide extra interest and excitement
  • increased funding for improved tech at ground and home
  • increased excitement in audience whilst waiting decision
  • increased awareness of and knowledge of sport; role models
  • increased elimination of negative aspects

negative effects:

  • increased costs to watch
  • loss of traditional nature
  • increased number of breaks for adverts and decisions
  • fewer tickets available; more to sponsors and corporate
  • changes in kick off times to max viewing figures that isn’t always in best interest of long-distance travelling fan
  • minority sports get less coverage
  • links to team or player merchandise viewed negatively or change regular and cost
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Video and analysis programmes

  • coaches/athletes using video, DVD or digital tech as a medium more often to analyse individuals and teams.
  • for individuals, video can be used for gait and biomechanics aspects and can help in injury rehab.
  • video motion analysis involves using a high-speed camera and computer with software allowing frame-by-frame playback of the footage on video. useful in the individual analysis of technical performance. can happen straight after performance or in controlled lab.
  • process of motion analysis had developed into distinct sport science disciplines
  • notational match analysis: records aspects of individual/team performance
  • biomechanics: analyse sporting impact of body movements
  • both use similar methods to collect data and rely on IT for data analysis. have measured observation in common during or after event to quantify performance in accurate, reliable and valid way.
  • athletes and coaches only recall 30% of performance right so analysis is 70%.
  • performance analysis is now acknowledged as important aid to performance enhancement at all levels and failure to use results in poor immediate decisions being made, as well in longer term relation to athletes training program.
  • can compare pre and post training feedback, can be used to see opponents’ stats.
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Testing and recording equipment

  • indirect calorimetry: technique where headgear is attached to a subject while they breathe for a specific amount of time. inspired/expired gas flows, volumes and concentrations of O2 and CO2 are measured. involves continuous measurement of O2 consumption and CO2 production. non-invasive technique. relatively accurate.
  • metabolic cart: equipment used when measuring indirect calorimetry. electrical medical tool used to measure body’s metabolism through amount of heat produced when body at rest. uses a process called calorimetry to get measurement. mounted on a push cart so can be moved. uses two factors to calculate heat production: intake of O2 and output of CO2. figures will provide result for cart, measured as resting energy expenditure. chemistry of body in response to test changes outcome. lower in women.
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Why they help and difficulties

  • determine energy needs and nutrition response
  • calculate energy expenditure
  • who are obese
  • in REE calculation, helps determine amount of nutrition needed


  • inaccuracies from air leaks and measurement errors
  • hard to use on children
  • over/under feeding may happen as a result 
  • single snap shots are worse than average results over longer time
  • process actually measures consumption not needs
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Use of GPS and motion tracking software and hardwa

  • useful for coaches in matches/training. gives info immediately and tracks speed distance and direction
  • provides data to improve performance via monitoring success rates in technical performance. can measure G forces in high contact sports. helps coaches make objective decisions about substitutions. decrease injury risk and manage workload in rehab.
  • makes better use of training time and ensures training meets game demands
  • improves tactical analysis used at club
  • helps coach compare and pick best players
  • helps injured get through rehab faster
  • more people now using via mobile apps.
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Monitoring data integrity

data integrity is maintaining and ensuring the accuracy and consistency of stored data over its lifetime

can be compromised by…

  • human error when data entered
  • errors occurring when data is transmitted from one computer to another
  • software bugs or viruses
  • hardware malfunction

way to minimise:

  • regularly backing up
  • controlling access to data and protection
  • designing interfaces to prevent input of invalid data
  • using error detection and correction software
  • not leaving data unattended  
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Functions of sports analytics

  • Helps individuals/team increase success chances and win more frequently and consistently.
  • Monitoring fitness for performance: either individual recreational purposes (monitoring HR for marathon) or elite (running pace). Smart wearable fitness and sports devices available to aid improved performance based on info they provide.
  • Skill and technique development: dartfish, tech can capture, create, analyse and share. technical, tactical or statistical info to improve in training. Useful where visual feedback is beneficial.
  • Injury prevention: vibration technology for exercise recovery, injury prevention and rehab. Can be direct/indirect. Benefits of improved bone density, increased muscle mass and DOMS reduction. Electrostimulation (contraction using impulses) prevents injuries by strengthening muscles and helping get rid of lactic acid.
  • Game analysis: quantitive data, performance metrics that measure amount of court covered during matches, gives edge over opposition. Use GPS to measure distance and speeds, help fine tune training and optimise rest and recovery. Can compare match to normal play, quality > quantity.
  • Talent ID/scouting: qualitative data through written scouting reports and feedback to recruit.
  • Technology used in pathway analytics to profile and benchmark effectiveness.
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Development of equipment and facilities in sport

  • Assistive and adaptive equipment for elderly and disabled people: mobility limitations are no longer a barrier. New devices for elderly/disabled and highly advanced equipment for elites. E.g. throwing frame in shot put and discus. Enable training and exercise and provide opportunity to participate. Tennis requires lightweight frame for fast pace, sharp turns and agility but rugby needs reinforced frame. Prosthetics improve gait efficiency, carbon flex fibre is new material and has positive impact.
  • Technology and facility development – Olympic legacy: people places play, sport England initiative in partnership with british olympic association. Deliver promise of increased participation for locals to access and use. Iconic facilities, transform sport places. 3G surfaces (synthetic grass), many sports can access and played on for longer and consistently. Can lead to injuries from being too rigid. Saracens rugby union at alianz park has re-embraced artificial turf. Multi use games areas.
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Impact of technology on sport, performer, coach an

  • Sport: increase participation and more inclusive. Adaptive equipment increases disabled participation. Improves surface quality and provide data to develop. Data can be misleading, expensive, become too reliant and have a placebo effect (increased confidence)
  • Performer: clothing (bodysuits in sprinting), equipment (light golf clubs), protection (cricket helmet withstanding fast pace), recovery (compression clothing), better rehab (O2 tents), performance analysis (GPS), diet (carbo-loading), drug-testing, sleep (fatigue wristband). Neg effects are injury, cheating, expensive and dependent on sponsor, only at elite level.
  • Coach: performance analysis, develop focus training. Can be negative if over-emphasis on data or hacking and exploited by opposition.
  • Audience/spectator: find info on favourites, understood by fans and have more knowledge. Audience can hear in rugby as ref has microphone, increased involvement and excitement and enhanced viewing experience. Tech costs can limit use so inconsistent experience, break in play can be disruptive and slow down action.
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