Sport in the 21st Century (6.2)

  • Social Class
  • Gender
  • Eduaction
  • Law and Order
  • Availibility of time 
  • Availibilty of money
  • Availibilty of transport

Social Class: Social Groups

  • There are stil social divisions withun our society:
    • Group 1 (A): Higher professional and managerial workers. 
    • Group 2 (B): Lower managerial and professional workers.
    • Group 3 (C1 & C2): Intermediate occupations.
    • Group 4 (C1 & C2): Small employers, non-professional and self-employed.
    • Group 5 (C1 & C2): Lower supervisory and techincal.
    • Group 6 (D): Semi-routine occupations.
    • Group 7 (D): Routine occupations.
    • Group 8 (E)Long-term unemployed.
  • Professional footballers are mostly unskilled, unemployed males from working-class backgrounds, longing for fame and fortune.
  • Sports such as rugby union in S.Wales and rugby league in N.England are examples of how fame and fortune can become real for working men of those areas.
  • Tennis has traditionally been associated with the middle-class but professional players represent a range of social class positions. 
  • Social Mobility can be acheived through sport, which results in a rekease from poverty.
  • The media promote this view and this creates role models for young people to look up to.
  • Key Term - Social Mobility: the changes in wealth, education and occupation over a person's lifetime.
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Social Class: Evaluation of Social Class and Socio

  • Sport is still associated with those perceived to be of a certain social class. However, 'social class' has developed since the early 20th century. 
  • Sports such as football (traditionally played by those from a working-class background) are now much more mixed.
  • Sports such as polo, tennis and golf are associated with the upper/middle class due to expense.
  • Elite Olympic sport has a dispropotianate number of privatley educated so therefore more middle-class athletes. 
  • The rate of participation of people aged 16 and over is greater among people form higher socio-economic groups than those from lower ones. 
  • A Sport England survey from 2015 found that 38.7% of people participated in sport from the higher socio-economic groups, compared to 25.7% from manual and unemployed socio-economic. 
  • Socio-Economic: Relating to or concerned with the interaction of social and economic factors. Economic circumstances can affect social experiences and vice versa. 
  • Seating in football stadiums was introduced following the Hillsborough distaster of 1989. 
  • The Premier League has been marketed into the 21st century and as a result seat prices have risen sharply. 
  • The middle classes are now much more likely to state that they are a football fans and more affluent older supporters are now much more prevalent as football fans.
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Social Class: Social Class and Sport

  • Social class is also a factor in whether someone is likely to be an amateur or a profesional in sport.
  • However, this depends on the type of sport.
  • Amateurs in sports such as cricket and rugby have been traditionally associated with the middle classes.
  • Professionals in an activity such as football have been largely working class.
  • However, rugby now consists of a broad representation of professional players from middle class and working class backgrounds.
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Gender: Participation Levels

  • There is still a difference in the participation levels between men and women in sport. 
  • Far more men get involved in sport, either to participate or to spectate.
  • It is stilll regarded that being good or interested in sport is 'unfeminine'; therefore reinforcing male dominance in sport.
  • Certain activities are traditionally linked to either men or women and this can lead to discrimination e.g. dance is more feminine.
  • More women than ever are now involved in exercise, with a lot of interest in health and fitness activities.
  • The participation levels for women involved in sports such as football and rugby are now much larger.
  • There is also an increase in female sports presenters in the media. This may encourage more women to be interested and become role models in sport.
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Gender: Evaluation

  • More women presenters in sport but there is a debate about why they are chosen.
  • A committe member from the House of Commons stated: 'It is coincidental that the majority of female presenters are all young, attractive, with one or two exceptions?'
  • Maybe the media are mirroring the sports industry as a whole, with only a minority of women involved and discrimination frequent, despite there are more female presenters than perfromers.
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Law and Order

  • In the 21st century, legislation that affects sport is sophisticated and more specific to sport.
  • The rights of spectators and their safety are also now more protected in law, as well as law related to agression of players on and off the pitch.
  • The law has been used increasingly to protect or to go against officials and referees.
  • However, in recent years new categories of potential defendants have started to emerge in actions for sports injuries e.g. the extent of responsibility of a match official with regards to safety.
  • This was introduced following 2 cases of rugby players who have suffered from severe spinal injuries as a result of the referees failure to exert control over a highly techinical area of the game.
  • Football banning orders have been used in the 21st century to stop football fans who are potential troublemakers from travelling abroad (football hooligans).
  • The law has also been involved in the misuse of drugs, misconduct on and off the pitch and match fixing (a form of gambling).
  • The increase in legislation may be a sign of a growth of lawlessness of sport, but may be more becuase people are more aware of their legal rights.
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Law and Order: Discrimination

  • Laws to prevent discrimination against race and gender have also had an impact on those who participate in sport. 
  • For example, the rights of transsexuals are protected (Gender Recognition Act of 2004).
  • Golf clubs and other private members' establishments are no longer able to discriminate gender under the 2010 Equality laws.
  • Discrimination legislation in the UK covers 6 categories:
    • Race
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Disability
    • Sexual Orientation
    • Religon
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  • Ages 5-11: Children attend primary school.
  • Ages 11- 17: Attend secondary schools, which normally means entry into a comprehensive school.
  • Among comprehensive schools, there are also schools including Roman Catholic schools.
  • The comprehensive school is: intended to provide all the secondary eduaction of all the children in a given area.
  • In England, 86.8% of pupils attend comprehensive schools.
  • There are other types:
    • 5.2% attend middle schools.
    • 2.6% attend secondary modern schools.
    • 4.2% attend secondary grammars.
    • 0.1% attend techinical schools.
  • More than a third of medal winners at the 2012 olympics were educated at private schools, which educate 7% of the school population. 
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Education: Exams

  • Pupils sit their GCSE examinations in secondary schools. 
  • The exams are marked by an independent body.
  • Students also sit there A Levels; access to university's is based on the number of exams taken and the grade acheived.
  • Exams and qualifications in sport and PE, including sports science have increased in the 21st century.
  • There are A Levels, AS Levels, GCSE's, BTEC's, Cambridge Nationals and Cambridge Technical qualifications.
  • This gives an increase in opportunity for young people to study PE and sport.
  • At university, there are degrees dedicated to sport, such as sports science, sport psychology, coaching and sports therapy.
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Availibility of Time

  • The 21st century has become much more technological, with most people better off than the early 20th century. 
  • The growing availibility of time due to technological advances and more flexible working hours and working conditions results in more participation in sport.
  • Numbers particiapting regularly in sport is down since 2012, by 125,000 to 15.6 million, while 121,700 fewer disabled people play sport regularly (2015).
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Availability of Money

  • ·         The global recession has affected most people's disposable income and the most vulnerable in sociery have struggled the most. 

    ·         This has lead to less money being spent on sports.

    ·         E.g. those who were regular football spectators ae unable to afford the cost of match tickets.

    ·         Gym membership has increased in the 21st century due to it being more affordable.

    ·        Participation rates in the UK, are 7.5% above Europe. However, figures are significantly below the countries with the highest levels e.g. 70% in Sweden.

    ·         Swimming, golf, and equestrian have all decreased in participation.

    ·         However, athletics, cycling and netball have increased in participation.

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Availability of Transport

·          The avalibility of transport has also increased, with most households owning a car.

  •    Participants are likely to travel by car, bus or rail, as are spectators.

·          The increase in cheap air fares has also contributed to travel abroad to compete and spectate.

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Globalistation of Sport

  • It applies to global sports events and sports organisations.
  • Globalisation: A process that involves sport as a worldwide business and features corporate brands, media coverage and freedom of movement of sports partcipants, officials and spectators.
  • International sport is a big business with massive investments.
  • Recently, some reputations have been tarnished with alleged corruption and cheating associated with organisations such as FIFA and IOC.
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Globalisation: Freedom of Movement and Greater Exp

  • Sport is a golbal marketplace for sports participants to showcase their skills to the highest bidder e.g. in football and rugby.
  • National and International laws enable this freedom of movement of individuals, especially in the EU.
  • In sports such as athletics, some change their nationalities to compete for a particular country.
  • In the first few years of the 21st century, there was a big increase in the number of football players from African countries migrated to GB and France. 
  • Spectators have also become global in thier support. Many travel to international competitions such as the Olympics.
  • The availibility and cheapness of air fares have made this even more accessible.
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Media Coverage

  • In the mid-20th century, there was only limited sport shown on TV and many feard TV coverage would affect the number of people going to watch live sport.
  • IN THE 1950's/60's, TV coverage was limited to highlights or big sports events such as the 1966 world cup.
  • Types of media include:
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