The Emergence of Court and Country 'parties'

  • Created by: lou9119
  • Created on: 05-02-18 17:45

The Restoration Settlement - Political (1660-64)

The Convention P was dissolved in Dec 60 and new elections were held in 61. In London, 5th Monarchist Venner attempted an uprising and there was nearly a Presybterian and Independent coup in the London Corporation elections. This reignitied fears of radical groups and the elections produced a massive Royalist majority resulting in the Cavalier P. The new P was Anglican mainly and suspicious of Catholics and dissenters. 

Political Settlement:

  • Prerogative courts abolished. 
  • 41 Triennial Act renewed but didn't include mechanisms to enforce the calling of P every 3Y; meaning CII could resort to persoanl rule. 
  • P ensured they controlled the militia, although the Militia Act of 61 stated king was in command of the forces. 
  • PC remained the most important organ of politics which CII doubled in size to 120 in order to accomodate all the factions. His inner circle was headed by Hyde (Earl of Clarendon) 
  • The Livensing Act reintroduced censorship of printed material. 
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The Restoration Settlement - Religious (1660-64)

The Convention P rejected Presbyterian structure that existed under the republic and restored the Anglican church. In 61 a meeting was held at the Savoy Palace to discuss details of long-term religious settlement. Although both high and low church factions were represented, the impact of Venner's rising and the election of the Cavalier P meant that High Anglicanism would dominate. The 4 acts of the Clarendon Code reflected the nature of this settlement. (Discussed later)

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The Restoration Settlement - Financial (1660-64)

With prerogative courts abolished many of the taxes his father relied on (Ship Money) was now impossible to enforce.

Financial Settlement: 

  • P approved an annual reg income of £1.2 mill. (mainly from customs duties and excise taxes)
  • Hearth tax (fireplaces in one house) authorised by P in Nov 61. Dissappointing as only 1/3 of expected revenue of £250,000 was collected in the 1st year. 
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Emergence of Parties

Since CI a division had begun between 'court' and 'country' interests. Members of the PN who were suspicious of links to Catholic powers and Arminians formed the country faction against court interests. 

The factions became more defined from the 70s. The Country faction believed that CII's pro-French policies were damaging and his attempts to provide toleration were dangerous. 

Charles' group of pro-catholic advisers known as the CABAL (discussed later) suffered a decline in the 70s and Osborne (Earl of Danby) became treasurer and chief adviser. His views were pro-Anglican and pro-Dutch. He concentrated on building a support base of MPs who would support the Crown now it had changed direction. This became the Court. 

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