the motives of the crusades


Raymond of Toulouse


  • Richest and oldest of all the crusaders.
  • One of the first to join the Crusade.
  • Close friend and supporter of Urban II.

Reason to go on the Crusade- Religiously motivated

  • Deeply religious, wanted to die in the holy land and sold all his land to take a big group of people onto the Crusade- includinhg his wife and son.
  • Showed adherance towards the papal reforms, and renounced investiture.
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Hugh of Vermandois


  • Brother of King Phillip I of Spain who was in a dispute with Urban II after commiting adultery.

Reason to go on the Crusade- dutiful and personal gain.

  • Went on the Crusade to show the Pope his brothers loyalty. 
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Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy


  • Close friend of Urban.
  • Devout christian and excelled soldier
  • Made Urban's representative on crusade and jointly decided on military strategies.

Reason for going- religious and dutiful, on behalf of the Pope.

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Godfrey of Bouillon


  • Owned lands in german empire and fought many years against papacy for german emperor.
  • Devout Christian who changed sides to serve the Pope and please God by fighting to free Jerusalem from muslim occupation.
  • Highly effective warrior!
  • Took group of monks on crusade as religious advisors and supporters.

Reasons for going- Religiously motivated!

  • Spiritual reward - sold a lot of lands to the church in order to participate, no intention of financial benefit.
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Bohemond of Taranto


  • Son of Robert the Cunning, Norman lord who ruled souther Italy.
  • Very fine soldier who fought with his father in 1080s against Alexios.
  • Did not inherit lands from father- primogeniture. Eager to gain lands elsewhere.

Reasons for going- financial gain.

  • Left immediately with nephew, Tancred of Lecce.
  • Would have expected to gain financially from expedition- had great experience of Byzantine expire due to raiding lands there.
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Robert of Normandy


  • Son of William the conqueror and brother of William II of England.
  • William, his brother, keen to remove him from Europe- William raised tax in England to allow Robert to go on the Crusade.

Reasons for going- spiritual reward.

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Stephen, count of Blois


  • son in law of William the conqueror.
  • Not a very good soldier.
  • Highly educated poet.
  • Devoted to religious wife, Adela, may have joined the crusade for her.

Reasons for going- spiritual or please his wife?

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Robert II of Flanders


  • Close connections with Constantinople via his father who formed close relation with Alexios.
  • He sent 500 knights to fight for him.

Reasons for going- financial gain and dutiful to father

  • Father died in 1903, felt duty to help eastern christian and Alexios.
  • He knew how richly Alexios rewarded those who helped him.
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