theories of crime

  • Created by: Libby1702
  • Created on: 20-01-20 13:57

why do poeple commit crime

  • revenge
  • mental illness
  • deprevation
  • financial gain
  • fear
  • power and authority
  • nature vs nurture
  • pleasure and thrill
  • honour and culture
  • addiction
  • defence
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catagories of crime

situtaional- the situational that the person finds themselves in
eg- addiction,fear, peer presure

envrionemnet- how a person was brought up in order to commit that crime
eg- upbringing, culture, honour

biological- how someone is biologicaly amde up/ out of their control for them to commit that crime
eg- mental illness

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defintions of crime and deveinace

crime= action that goes against the criminal law

deviance= breaking societal norms and values

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socilogical concepts

folkways- norm that organises casual interactions
eg- waiting in a line
infromal social control

mores- structure the diffrence between right and wrong
eg- someone moving in with thier partner befre marriage in some cultures can cause them to be punished
infromal social control

taboo- strong social norm, not sticking to this can result in disgust
eg- muslims eating pork
formal social control

law- norm that is written
eg- when someone breaks the law there will then be punishment for this
formal social control

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social control

informal social control

  • encourges social confroms
  • parest use this for exmaple- spanking them 
  • unwritten words 
  • passed thrugh generation to generation 

formal social control 

  • violting soicla norms can mean issues in society 
  • done thrugh the crinimal ustice system 
  • enforced by police, courts, prisions
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actus reus and mens rea

'an act does not make a person guility unless the mind is guility' 

  • guilty act= actus reus 
  • guiity mind= mens rea 
  • both have to be present in order to secure a conviction 
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what can a crime depend on

  • time 
  • place 
  • situtaion 
  • culture
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formal sanctions that can be put against criminals

  • fine 
  • driving ban 
  • caution 
  • ASBO 
  • extradition 
  • community service 
  • prision 
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  •  breaks the norms/social rules 
  • goes againt moral code 
  • depends on
    - situation
    - culture 
  • varies in country
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age of respsonablity

  • scotland= 8 (prosecution can be 12)
  • england and wales= 10

sentencing for under 18s
- fine
- referral order
- youth rehabilitation
- custodial sentencing
- detention

why they commit crime?
- peer pressure
- influence
- moeny

  • children often go to secure houseing instead of prison (only 8)
  • 20 young offenders in the uk max 76
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legal age of concent

  • 1275- set to the age of 12
  • 1875- set to 13
  • 1885- set to 16
  • bill to raise it at 17 in 1917 but failed by one vote
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case study: ruth ellis

  • last women to be executed in brirtain
  • shot dead david blackerly- who had been violnetly abused her, 
  • shot him mutiple times outside a bar in london 
  • then asked to have the police call on her

wouldnt be charged with manslaughter 

  • homocide act 1957- introduced deminshed responsebality 
  • pettioned signed

would be changed 

  • admitted to killing him 

wasnt done in self defense- he didnt know she was there

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social construct

laws that differ from culture to culture 

  • adultery
  • honour crime
  • homesexuality 

laws that have chnaged over time in the uk 

  • the slave trade 
  • cruelty to animals 
  • the right to a free education 

laws that have been applied diffretly in diffrent circumstances

  • diminshed responsibilty 
  • self defence 
  • age of responseability 
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biological factors

  • XYY chromasome= muttaion in the gene
  • rare genetic pattern linked with violence and slow learning
  • blood samples where taken from prisoners to see if they had that abnormality and they discoverd that people who have this gene are more likely to be criminals
  • MAOA= controlls the amount of dophamine and serototine
  • CDH13= asscoited with subtance abuse and ADHD

more likely to have

- agression
- slower learning
- 1/1000 males have this gene

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cesare lambroso- 1876

  • 40% males where criminals
  • identify them from skulls and thier facial features
  • conducetd frm crimnals and some post mortems
  • comparied dimensions between criminals and non crimanls

looked at:
- head
- symetry
- eye defects
- small ears
- hair
- long arms= reventering back to primative ways

  • females- unheard of because they where less envolved and less incative nature
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Phineas P George- traumatic brain injurys

  • survived an accident that left a largeiron rod straight through his head
  • he then reported the effects on his perosnlaity and behvaiour
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