Training & Appraisal


On the Job Training

It is training which is given at the premises during normal working hours usually provided by a member of the staff.


  • Content of the training is designed for that business so will have greater effect and will mean that staff can perform to the optimum as they will know how to carry out their role. 
  • It is less expensive for the employer as it takes place within the business so specialists do not have to be paid for.


  • No formal qualification is received so staff may not be as motivated compared to off-the-job training as it may not help with promotion possibly in the future. 
  • Can involve shadowing so the trainee may pick up bad habits e.g using equipment incorrectly so will need to have a highly skilled trainer.
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Off-the-job Training

Training is provided by specialists so should be to a better standard than on the job enabling higher levels of skills and ideas to improve the business leading to better customer service e.g.


  • Manager may exchange ideas with other managers and can bring these back to the business which could help productivity as they may think of new efficient ways of carrying out tasks.
  • Training is away from the pressures/distractions of the business as it takes place outside the working environment which will allow the member of staff to focus fully on the training so will learn more.


  • Is more expensive than On-the-Job Training as specialist courses have to be paid for and accommodation if the training takes place in another country etc 
  • May not be exactly suitable for the business as machinery and equipment they use will be different so cannot take those skills back.
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  • New employees will be inducted into the company making them feel comfortable and this will mean they can settle into the role increasing their job satisfaction
  • Training decreases the possibility of accidents as have been trained in their roles and will also be more motivated as they feel the business is putting time into developing their skills.
  • Company would be able to keep ahead of its competition as they will have a higher skilled staff offering better levels of customer service or having more ideas on how to improve and remain unique or reduce costs 


  • Employees have to be given time off work for training with off the job training and this can affect productivity. Also with on the job training the trainer’s work will have to slow down and the trainee will not be producing as fast.
  • Fully trained employees may leave for employment with competitors which  will mean after investing time and money to develop the employee that is lost and the business’ investment is as well as they take the skills to a competitor.
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Types of Appraisal (1)

Observation - Where a person in authority watches the staff in order to see how well they work. It may be accompanied with an interview then afterwards to discuss the observation.


  • Can take place over a longer period of time (than an interview)
  • Test conditions are avoided as staff are comfortable in their own surroundings which may provide a true reflection of their work
  • Work is not interrupted as the appraiser watches the appraise work which means productivity is not impacted unlike if they have to take the time out for an interview.


  • Employees may find it off-putting being observed
  • Its time consuming 
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Types of Appraisal (2)

Self-evaluation – Looking critically at one’s own work and seeking ways to improve its quality or finding easier, more efficient ways of performing it


  • Employee is more responsible for their own work which is motivational.
  • They evaluate their own performance against a set of targets. 


  • Employee may not be aware of his/her own faults or know how to improve.
  • If not prepared then the appraisal may not be effective. 
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Types of Appraisal (3)

Interview –one to one discussion between employee and supervisor/manager


  • Opportunity to discuss work issues
  • Employees can have their say


  • Employees need to be well briefed on the process or it may not be worthwhile
  • Employees may not be open and honest
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  • Identifies strengths and weaknesses of employees during observation for example which can they identify opportunities for training/development to improve on weaknesses
  • Provides motivation/sets targets which results in a more highly committed staff. This may result in higher profits
  • Provides opportunity for employer/employee to discuss any issues and allows the chance to improve on these.

Benefits for Employees 

  • Identifies training needs
  • Opportunity to communicate with employer 

Benefits for Employers 

  •  Increase in staff competence and productivity
  • Highlights strengths and weaknesses, so employee can be used most efficiently
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