unit 7 - safeguarding

  • Created by: Ellieb153
  • Created on: 09-12-19 08:41

types of abuse

  • physical - hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning
  • emotional - the persistant emotional maltreatment
  • neglect - the persistant failure to meet an individual's basic needs. 
  • sexual - forcing or enticing an individual to part take in sexual activities
  • financial - theft, fraud, exploitation, coercion
  • institutional - neglect and poor care within a care environment
  • bullying - behaviour that is repeated and intended to hurt someone
  • expolitation - treating someone unfairly to benefit from them
  • discrimination - treating someone differently because of their race, sex, age ect.
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signs and symptoms of PHYSICAL ABUSE


  • bruising 
  • cuts
  • injuries that dont match the explainations given


  • unexplained chnages in behaviour
  • anxious
  • lack of social skills - little friends
  • always wearing clothes that cover their body - covering injuries
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signs and symptoms of EMOTIONAL ABUSE


  • struggle to control emotions
  • difficulty making and maintaining relationships
  • acting age inappropiatley
  • bed wetting
  • dressing differently from other family members


  • depression
  • withdrawl
  • lacking in social skills
  • unconfident, lack of assurance
  • overly compliant
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signs and symptoms of NEGLECT


  • poor appearance and hygiene
  • poor health and development
  • housing and family issues


  • changes in behaviour 
  • lack of attachment to other adults
  • may steal food
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signs and symptoms of SEXUAL ABUSE


  • brusing, bleeding in genital/anal area
  • STIs or pregnancy
  • prostitution or promiscuity
  • uses younger children in sexual acts
  • trying to make themselves unattractive


  • emotional - age inappropriate
  • fear of certain places - bedrooms, bathrooms
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signs and symptoms of FINANCIAL ABUSE


  • unexplained bank withdrawals
  • unpaid bills
  • fraud
  • theft
  • unusual account activity


  • unsatisfactory living conditions
  • lacking in belongings
  • nervous
  • confusion
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signs and symptoms of INSTITUTIONAL ABUSE


  • inadequate staffing levels
  • poor standards of care
  • absence of visitors
  • poor record keeping
  • few social, recreational and educational activities
  • absence of individual care plans


  • malnurished
  • confused
  • nervous around care givers
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signs and symptoms of BULLYING


  • 'lost' or damages belongings
  • unexplainable physicla injuries
  • loss of focus
  • eating and sleeping problems
  • bullying of others


  • nervousness
  • loss of confidence
  • afrais to go to certain places e.g. school
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signs and symptoms of EXPLOITATION


  • an individual has a new friend that seems to have an influence on the individual
  • the individual may also be paying for things for this 'friend'


  • changes in behaviour - withdrawl from social activities
  • the individual explaining that the 'friend' will be disappointed or annoyed if they dont do something
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signs and symptoms of DISCRIMINATION


  • hate mail
  • verbal physical abuse in public places
  • criminal damage to property
  • refusing to access services that are required to meet needs


  • isolated
  • low self-esteem
  • expressions of anger and confusion
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whos at risk of abuse?

  • people with learning disabilities
  • looked-after children
  • people with physical disabilities
  • thoes with dementia
  • thoes who lack a mental capacity
  • thoes who have a sensory impairment
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health and social care settings

  • dentists
  • seccure settings
  • ambulances
  • care homes
  • clinics
  • children's services
  • rehabilitation services
  • assisted/supported living
  • day nurseries
  • home care services
  • mental health services
  • hospitals
  • hospices
  • GPs and doctors surgeries
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lacking mental capacity

When individuals are unable to make thier own decisions about thier care or treatment.

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looked-after children

These are children that are in the care of the local authority.

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Human Rights Act 1998

  • enables rights to be given to every person.
  • righ to life.
  • freedom of throught, religion and belief.
  • freedom from degrading treatment.
  • protection of property.
  • protection against slavery.
  • right to education.
  • right to a fair trail.
  • the right to freee elections.
  • respect for private and family life.
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Health and Social Care Act 2008

created a new regulator to provide registration and inspection of health and social care services. 

it established the CQC as the regulator.

they inspect and regulate primary care settings.

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Care Act 2014

requires local authorities to make enquires if the individual is being abused, neglected, or is at risk of abuse or neglect.

multi-agency safeguarding adult boards to review cases.

introduced by the Duty of Candour and Fundamental Standards on which all service providers are inspected. 

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Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006

passed to help avoid harm, or risk of harm.

this is done by preventing barred people from working with children and vulnerable adults.

implemented the barring scheme.

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Disclosure and Barring Scheme, "No Secrets"

sets out how different agencies must work together to respond to investigate and prevent abuse.

explains how commissioners and providers of health and social care services should work together to produce and implement local policies and procedures. 

they should collaborate with the public, voluntary and private sectors.

they should also work with service users, thier carers and representitive groups. 

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Mental Capacity Act 2005 & Deprivation of Liberty

aims to protect and empower people who are unable to make choices and decisions for themselves.

ensures that poeple who cannot consent to their care arrangements in a care home or hospital are protected if thoes arrangements deprive them of their liberty.

arrangements must be assessed.

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Equality Act 2010

protects people from discrimination, harrassment and victimisation due to the protected characteristics

these are:

  • race
  • gender
  • disability
  • sexual orientation
  • gender reasignment
  • religion 
  • age
  • marriage and civil partnership
  • pregnancy and maternity
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Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998

protects workers who disclose information about malpractice at thier current or former workplace.

provides the legal frameowkr for whistleblowers.

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Rehabilitation of Offenders Act

supports the rehabilitation into employment of reformed offenders.

aims to give thier with convictions the opportunity to start afresh.

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Children Act 2004

  • encourages partnership working.
  • protects all children.
  • gives children the right to an advocate.
  • children's need come first.
  • children's commissioner.
  • children have the right to be consulted.
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Working Together to Safeguard Children Act 2006

sets out how organisations and individuals should work together to safeguard and promotw the welfare of children and young people.

gives guidance on how to protect children from malnurishment, prevent the impairment of children's health or development, ensures that children grow up in circumstances consistent with the previsions of safe and effective care.

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Data Protection Act

  • processed fairly and lawfully.
  • only used fro the intended purposes.
  • processed in line with the rights of the individual.
  • not transferred to countries outside of europe.
  • kept seccurely.
  • kept for no longer than necessary.
  • accurate and kept up-to-date.
  • adequate and relevant.
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who might abuse be disclosed to?

  • family
  • peers
  • other professionals
  • siblings
  • teachers
  • other members of the public
  • social workers
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when dealing with a disclosure - DO

  • stay calm.
  • listen very carefully.
  • be sympathetic.
  • be aware that medical evidence might be needed.

tell the person that:

  • they did the right thing.
  • you are treating the information seriously.
  • it was not their fault.
  • explain that you have to tell someone like the safeguarding officer who can help.
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when dealing with a disclosure - DON'T

  • dont look shocked or disgusted.
  • dont promise to keep a secret.
  • dont make promises you cannot keep.
  • dont gossip about what you have been told.
  • dont press for details.
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suspicions of abuse

each organisation will have set ways of reporting suspected abuse - known as safeguarding policies.

each care worker has a responsibility to report concerns appropriately.

- do not ignore the signs that an individual may be at risk of abuse.

- ensure the individual is safe.

- report yours or other's suspicions to the named person.

- keep any evidence secure.

- record the facts.

- refer suspicions to another organisation.

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disclosures of abuse

- listen to the individual and reassure them - dont show shock or disbelief.

- ensure they're safe.

- explain you will pass on the dislcosure in confidence.

- report the disclosure to the named person.

- keep any evidence secure.

- record with full details.

- refer the disclosure to another organisation.

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ensuring safeguarding

  • policies and procedures.
  • multi-agency approach.
  • DBS checks.
  • risk assessments.
  • acceessible complaints procedures.
  • designated safeguarding officer.
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vulnerable adults

- staff training, recruitment procedures.

- DBS checks.

- multi-agency approach.

- risk assessments.

- accessible complaints procedures.

- designated protection officer.

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safeguarding children

  • safeguarding policy.
  • confidentiality policy.
  • risk assessments.
  • staff recruitmeny/training.
  • DBS checks.
  •  designated child protection officer.
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staff recruitment

- clear effective recruitment procedures - ensures that only suitable people can work there.

- advertising posts and ensuring they have a clear job description - explains the types of work, and what they'll be doing.

- application form must aks for convictions, qualifications and experience - works out who's suitable or not. 

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staff recruitment

- assessment tests - specific to the job to make sure that applicants are able to do the job.

- interviews - establishes if the applicant is suitable.

- references - checks the applicant's abilities and work-ethic.

- DBS checks - checks to make sure that the applicants can work with vulnerable individuals. 

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regular ongoing training, keeps workers up to date inn thier training to any changes in risks.

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performance is monitored and it makes sure that staff know what to do when working.

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continuing professional development

supports the appraisal process - managers can continually monitor performance.

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trial period where managers can assess the applicants.

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can be coached and advised by more experienced staff members.

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gives new staff an introductionn into the workplace. they may be offered the chance to shadow or buddy up with a more experienced member of staff

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probationary period

makes sure all workers have the skills and knowledge to do their jobs correctly. this includes training.

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risk assessments

  • maintain health and safety.
  • ensures adequate safety measures.
  • can be updated and ammended regularly.
  • incidents can be reported and reviewed.
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multi-agency approach

  • concerns are identified and reported early.
  • information is shared.
  • better insight and knowledge of information.
  • professionals and agencies work consistently.
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accessible complaints procedures

  • concerns can be raised.
  • whistleblowers have access to support.
  • e.g. PALS in the NHS - patient and liasion services.
  • builds trust and respect.
  • avaliable to all. - people more likely to raise concerns.
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Designated protection officer

  • clean lead on safeguarding.
  • suspicions and disclosures are dealt with consistantly.
  • able to share knowledge and expertise with other staff.
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steps to prevent abuse

  • person centred planning - a team co-operate to help the individual.
  • effective record keeping - so that other workers are aware of any important information.
  • duty of care - to keep individuals safe.
  • following policies and procedures - upholding individuals rights and keeping them safe.
  • effective communication channels - on a need to know basis.
  • building a trusting professional relationship - enables individuals to feel more comfortable around workers.
  • continuing professional development - making sure that all workers are aware of any issues. 
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person centred planning

it is a good way to minimise the risk of abuse to vulnerable adults and children because it enables individuals to be in control of their own safety. 

it ensures workers:

  • place individuals at the centre of their care and support.
  • value individuality.
  • promote individuals' privacy and dignity.
  • promote individuals rights to independence and to make thier own informed choices and decisions.
  • promote mutual trust and respect.
  • work together in partnership
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effective record keeping

includes accurate, complete and up-to-date information as well as secure storage and holding practices ans minimise the risk of abuse by:

  • clearly identifying potential risks of danger, harm and abuse.
  • providing guidance in the actions to take when risks are identified.
  • providing consistant information that is accessible by all workers who access it on a need to know basis.
  • providing accurate information that can be shared between professionals and agencies who can access it on a need to know basis accessible to all.
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duty of care

  • decisions made are led by the individual's needs, wishes and preferences.
  • risks are identified and reduced while respecting individual's rights to make their own choices and decisions.
  • individuals are supported and protected from the risk of danger, harm and abuse.
  • individuals are not placed in situations that may cause danger, harm and abuse.
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following policies and procedures

  • upholding individual's rights to live safely and free from danger, harm and abuse.
  • focusing on preventing danger, harm and abuse.
  • providing a set of standards that workers can work to and comply with. 
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effective communication channels

effective verbal, non-verbal and written communication between workers, individuals, thier families, professionals and agencies.

  • creating an open environment where it is encouraged to be open and honest and discuss any concerns or risks of abuse happening.
  • ensuring all concerns are responded to and acted on quickly to lessen the risk and extent of abuse happening.
  • diffusing situations that have potential to cause distress and fustration and that could potentially lead to abuse occuring.
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building a tusting professional relationship

  • enables individuals to confide in them when abuse is heppening to them and/or others.
  • building mutual respect so that the individual feels in control of their life.
  • encouraging open discussions and therefore minimising the risk of abusive relationships.
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continuing professional development

  • equipping them with current knowledge and up-to-date practices in safeguarding and protecting individuals to be able to practice safely and legally.
  • enabling them to identify when individuals may be at risk of being abused or abusing others.
  • knowing how to reduce the opportunities for abuse to occur.
  • developing ways of working that reduce the likelihood of abuse happening, i.e. person-centred approaches. 
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developing confidence and resilience

supporting positive risk taking

promoting active participation

promoting choice

teaching personal safety

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