unit two learning aim a



Purpose of rehab-

enable person to recover from an accident or serious illness and to live independently and a fulfilling life. programmes are important after someone has had a heart attack, stroke or following an accident as this might have reduced their mobillity and reaction speed.

Rehab: centre part of treatment for people who have mental illness

Rehab: may include support from physiotherapists, occupational therapists, counsellors or psychotherapists.

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5 key principles of good practice.

Values system commitments include:

  • promoting anti- discriminatory practice, meet needs of all people regardless of their religion, culture, ethnic background, dsiabilllity and other personal differences.
  • empower individuals, ensure they make decisions and take control
  • ensure the safety of staff and people who they care for
  • maintain confidentiality and privacy
  • promote good communication between carers, between carers and their clients

these 5 principles of good practice are the care value base, established by the care sector consortium in 1992.

examples of who guides codes of practice:

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Promoting anti-discriminatory practice

Anti- discriminatory practice is a core value. based on legal requirements as outlined in the equality act 2010. underpins policies and practices of care settings and in the codes of practcice for all care professionals.

anti discriminatory practice aims to ensure that the care needs of service users are met regardless prejudices of staff or other service users are appropriately challeneged.

all citizens in great britian have legal protection through the courts.

the human rights act(1998) applies to all parts of the united kingdom. the act guarantees rights to people cared for " public authorities" to be treated equally, with fairness, dignity and respect. Public authorities, organisations, or organisations, include hospitals, GP practices, social service departments , schools and colleges and many care and nursing homes. 

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Adapting H/S care provision for different service

anti- discriminatory practice ensures the service users legal rights are in place. it also promotes equal oppurtunitiees for all and challenges discrimination at work.

  • addresses their own prejudices and adapt behaviours to ensure clients needs are met
  • understand and meet the inidvidual needs of all service users
  • celebrate the contribution of a wide and diverse society
  • actively challenge both intentional and unintentional discrimination against clients and patients
  • ensure setting is welcoming and accessible
  • compensate for negative effects of discrimnation in society

examples of adapting provision to meet needs:

  •  wheelchair ramps and movement within setting. wide doors, toilet facilitates, dining 
  • written and visual communication for people with hearing impairment. quiet area, employment of a signer or interpreter
  •  number of different language information for people who don't speak english
  • dietary requirments to meet religious and cultural needs, festivals respected and observed.
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Empowering individuals

fostering and supporting the empowerment of service users in H/S care settings can often be overlooked.

empowerment= service users take full part in discusiions and decisions about perosonal care and treatment.

empowerment= make choice about their care, contribute to decision making and take control of their lives.

practitioners are required to gain their clients consent before caryying out care procedure, a treatment or making arrangements for clinet care. this esnures individualised care- treated as individuals , dignity and independence, boost self-esteem.

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Dealing with conflict

tension and conflict with service users, between service users and their carers can be common. 

challenging behaviour= putting others at risk or affecting quality of life.

examples: excessive rudeness, aggression. self harm, disruptiveness. training is needed to deal with conflict.

if you work in domiciliary work(alone with service users) = lone workers policy needs to be in place with specific guidnace for dealing with situations where you feel vulnerable.

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Ensuring safety in a H/S care setting

responsibillity of the employers to ensure health and safety of all who work for their company or organisation.

employers are responsible for the safety of volunteers, learners on work placement and all visitors.

the health and safety at work act (1974) governs the requirments of employers and emplyees to ensure that they maintain a safe working environment.

employers must:

  •  ensure the organisation has robust health and safety policy and that someone has official responsibillity for H/S in that setting.
  • undertake risk assessment to indentify the risks and hazards at the workplace and take action to reduce likeliness of harm and injury.
  • up to date information on H/S issues
  • H/S training
  • record of all accidents and incidents.
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Ensuring safety in H/S care setting

Employers must:

  • take reasonable care of their own safety an that of others in the workplace, including service users, collegues and visitors
  • cooperate with their employer to carry out the agreed and required health and safety procedures of the workplace.
  • not intentionally damage H/S equipment at the setting( hoists and lifts)

risk assessment= examine all the procedures and activities that take place in their organisation and assess the level of risk involved .

e.g. care home= risks associated with routine procedures to organising a social event/outings. risk assessment is normally carried out by a senior care assisstent has had the traning to carry out this task.

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if a child or vulnerbale adult shares information that raises concerns about their personal safety or they disclose that they are being abused- you should follow the settings safeguarding policies.

  • you should listen carefully and avoid asking questions 
  • let servuce user tell their story in their own way and in their own words
  • explain that the information must be shared with someone more senior
  • all care setiings will have a designated safeguarding officer who will take responsibillity for investigating the claim or accusation. 
  • the safeguarding officer will ask you to provide a written record of what you have been told.
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Risk assessment

step by step:

1. identify the hazards at the setting, or in carrying out an activity 

2. identify those at risk, including service users, staff, volunteers and other visitors

3. evaluate the level of risk- usually rated on a scale of 1 to 4, with 1 being the lowest.

4. identify ways to limit the risk- this will include specific actions to minimise risk

5. review measures taken to minimise risk

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Protecting service users, staff and volunteers fro

you must be familiar with policies and procedures in place at your setting to minimise the spread of infection.

they might include:

1. washing hands before and after work, after using the toilet, after coughing or sneezing, after when you have carried out personal care(body fluids, clinical waster or dirty linen)

2. safe handling and disposal of sharp articles such as needles and syringes to avoid needle stick injuries and to ensure that infection is not passed on through viruses carried in the blood or bacteris

3. keeping all soiled linen in the designated laundry bag or bin dont leave around use protective apron and gloves wash hands and use seperate trolleys for soiled and cleaned laundry to avoid cross contamination

4. protective disposable gloves and aprons when you have contact with body fluids or when you are caring for someone with open wounds, rashes or pressure ulcers

5. cleaning all equipment.

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Colours of bags

Type of waste:                                                                                     Method of disposal:

clinical waste, e.g bandages, plasters or other dressings                    yellow bag- waste is burned                                                                                                                in controlled settings.

needles and syringes                                                                           yellow "sharps" box which is                                                                                        sealed waste is burned in controlled settings.

body fluids e.g urine, vomit or blood                                                    flushed down a sluice drain-                                                                                                 area must be cleaned and disinfected.

soiled linen                                                                                           red laundry- laundered at the                                                                                                                approriate temperature.

recyclable equipment and instruments                                                 blue bag: returned to the                                                                    central sterillisation services( CSSD) for sterillsing and reuse.

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Reporting accidents

paticular illlnesses, diseases and serious accidents health and care providers must offically report.

they are called " notfiable deaths, injuries or diseases" and ar4e covered by the Reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurences regulations(RIDDOR 2013) 

notifiable illness include diphtheria, food poisoning, rubella (german measles). TB and notifiable incidents occuring at work including broken bones, serious burns and death.

* less serious accidents and incidents must also be recorded regardless whether there was an injury or not. this will not be recorded on an incident form recorded in accident book.

these reports are required by law to be checked when inspected.

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Provision of first aid

first aid provision is governed by health and safety regulations (1981)

first aid should be adaquste and appropriate, this varied from setting to setting.

incidents that occur in care setting mjust be recorded. they should include:

  •  name of casualty 
  • nature of incident or injury
  • date, time and location of incident
  • record of the treatment given

 must be truthful and accurate, they may be used in courts of law. 

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Complaints procedure

complaint procedures will vary for in different organisations but will follow similar format:

  •  have their complaint dealt with swiftly and efficiently
  • have proper and careful investigation of their concerns
  • know the outcome of those investigations
  • have a judicial review of the facts, if they think the action or decision is unlawful
  • recieve compensate if they have been harmed physically pr pshychologically as a result of the situaiton. 
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Information management and communication

health and social care organsiations hold a wide range of diverse information about service users

it is important that service users are able to trust that their personal information is treated as confidential and only shared with people who have a legitimate reason to know their circumstances and preferences. 

the data protection act 1998.

rules that govern the processing and use of personal information is H/S care settings. the act covers information stored electronically on computers, mobile phones and on social media sites. it also covers most paper based personal information. it is against the law to have photographs of service users without their permission. 

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Recordng and storing data

the act covers:

storing information: confidential information should be stored in locked filling cabinets, locked rooms, password protected.

accessing information: members of staff in the organisation who are allowed access to the information should be clearly identified. staff should never have access to personal information that they do not need to know.

sharing information: information should only be shared with other professionals who have a need and a right to know it.

legal and workplace requirements: 

the principles and requirments of the data protetion act (1998) and the requirements for confidentiality are within the policies and procedures of all health and social care settings. all employees and volunteers in organsaitions have a responsibillity to esnure that the confidentiality of service users information is protected. if a weakness is spotted, they should feel confident to suggest improvements in the systems and arrangements. 

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Confidentiality, safeguarding and legal disclosure

accountabillity to professional organisations

standards of professional practice expected of professionals working in H/S care settings are monitored by a rnaage of bodies such as GMC, NMC and HCPC.

the specific regulations vary:

  • levels and content of the initial education and training of members of their profession
  • ongoing prof. development and training up to date
  •  standards of professional practice
  • standards of personal conduct.
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Codes of professional conduct

professional organisations publcih codes of practice for members which must be followed. if a member fails to meet the standards set, this will be investigated and members can be removed from the professional register or banned from practice.

organisations outline the formal procedure that will be used following a complaint or concern. this will include specicifc procedures to investigate unprofessional practice reported by professionals about their collegues- know as whistleblowing. 

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Codes of professional conduct

revalidation procedures:

each professional body requirs it's members to complete regular CPD in order to remain on the register.

this may include: 

  •  training on the use of new procedures or treatments 
  • training on new equipment
  • providing evidence thata registered person reviews and learns from their own practice
  • include evidence  that members have current and up to date understanding go safeguarding. 
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Care certificate 2015

introduced for new appointed H/S care workers who are not members of a regulatory body for care assisstants, support workers and homeare workers. NOT a statutory requirment= voluntary. provides standards H/S care workers should follow in their daily work life. employers are expected to implement the care certificate for all new starters from april 2015. they will be required to meet its standards before they can work with patients.

the code of conduct incorporated into the new certificate requires that healthcare support workers and adult social care workers in england:

  •  are accountable 
  •  promote and uphold the privacy, dignity, rights, health and well being of people who usse the services.
  • work in collaboration with collegues to ensure they deliver high quality, safe and compassionate support.
  • communicate in an open and effective way
  • respect a perons right to confidentiality
  •  strive to improve the quality of healthcrare through CPD
  • uphold and promote equality, diversity and inclusion. 
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Multi disciplinary working in H/S care sector.

different care professionals work together as a team to promote the well being of service users

these teams may include not only the H/S care workers but also representatives from volunary organisations. the emergency services may also be presented.

when professionals co-operate in this way by working together as a team- this is called multi-disciplinary working. 

why the need for MDW?

if a service user is know to and supported by anumber of different agencies or professionals, it is essential that those carers work as a team.

there has been many high profile cases, where lack of joined up working has been blamed for deaths, crucial information was not passed.

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Holistic approaches

at formal team meetings it is expected for the service user to be present, their advocate, translator, carers will be invited along with all other professional staff who contribute to the support, planning and evaluation of the care provided.

empowerment is crucial= key oppurtunity for service users to express views and preferences and contribute to the planning and delivery of their support.

the work of a multi- disciplinary team ensures that a holisitc approach is taken to planning and implementing a care programme.

specialist support alongside considering the wider context of the service users needs. care planning meeting= physcial, social, emotional, spiritual and intellectual needs of the service user will be considered. needs of whole person. 

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people who work in health and care settings normal also work in hierachical organisations and their work is monitored by senior memeber of staff

care managers will expect employeed to follow these routines and meet the standards set.

in larger settings, there will often be a senior care worker who manages a team of care assistants on behalf of the manager. 

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  •  whistleblowers may be employees at any level and working in any part of the organisation as a care worker, an administartor or manager.
  •  when a member of staff is aware that the quality of care at their workplace is dangerously poor and reports this to bring about change.
  • they may inform the press or another, usually powerful, organisation outside the setting in which they work such as the police or professional body. 
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Service user feedback

settings will have a range of different systems for ensuring that service users and thier families, friends or other informal carers can formally comment on the strengths and weaknesses of the service that they recieve , this may include:

1. regular meetings for service users to report concerns and to share ideas for the improvement of provision.

2. at a large setting, there may be a commitee that represents all service users, for example a parents and carers association at a pre-school setting.

3. suggestions box

4. service users may request a private meeting with a manager or governor of a setting

5. service users reporting good practice or areas of concern to the external agencies ( ofsted, CQC, or CSSIW) if organisations repsonsible for inspecting settigns recieve complaints this may lead to a prompt and often unannounced inspection of the care setting. 

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Criminal investigations

in extreme circumstances ( sexual, physical, financial or emotional abuse) in which it is suspected that criminal law has been broken, the police may investigate. there have been high profile cases where care staff have been found guilty and imprisoned following criminal investigations.

this may also lead to health and care workers being removed from thier professional register and being barred from professional practice. 

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