A Level PE - Group Cohesion and Dynamics

  • Created by: hotzmc
  • Created on: 27-12-17 14:52

A Level PE - Groups Cohesion and Dynamics:

Group: Two or more people interacting with one another such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person

  • A group of people with shared common goals


  • A group will only form a ‘bond’ if the following characteristics are in place (Carron):
    • A collective identity 
    • A sense of shared purpose
    • A clear structure of communication
    • Share a common goal

Successful Groups:

  • Have a strong collective identity -> opportunity to socialise, share goals & ambitions and have ownership of ideas
  • Have members who communicate effectively 
  • Have strong cohesion
  • Have members who value relationships within the group
  • Have a successful coach or leader who values contribution of members 
  • Motivate each other by giving individuals credit for their actions (e.g. number of tackles made), praise from significant others, positive feedback, winning

Group Cohesion: The degree of successful bonding or strength of group co-operation

Formation and Development of a Cohesive Group/Team:

Group Dynamics: process by which a group is consistently developing an changing when interaction takes place 

  • The 6 I’s help us identify if a group is cohesive:
    • Interaction (communication over a period of time) 
    • Interdependence (person & task to achieve a common goal)
    • Interpersonal relationships (mutual attraction)
    • Identical goals/norms/values
    • Identity (perception of group existence)
    • Independence 
  • A coach has to work to develop the 6 I’s over a considerable amount of time in order to get the best performance out of them

Building Group Cohesion:

  • Leaders in sports environments should aim to develop cohesiveness within a group 
  • It is claimed that the development of a group normally goes through 4 stages of group formation:
  1. Forming - the group meets or is assembled
  2. Storming - heightened tension may developers roles are defined and tasks established 
  3. Norming - Rules and standards of behaviour are agreed as cohesion is built
  4. Performing - The group matures and works together 

Steiner’s Model of Group Performance:

The model states: actual productivity = potential productivity - faulty processes

Potential Productivity: The groups best performances given its resources (e.g. skills of individuals, knowledge)

Faulty Processes: Things that can go wrong (e.g. poor co-ordination, social loafing, competition)

Two Main Reasons Exist for Faulty Processes:

  • Co-ordination problems: due to team not working effectively together (e.g. poor timings -> corner in football)
  • Motivational Losses: often occur when players don’t have the same motives, lead to loss of group cohesion

Strategies to Reduce the Negative Impact of Faulty Processes on Performance:

  • Practice/training to ensure all understand tactics
  • Give individuals specific roles/responsibilities 
  • Explain specific roles within the team
  • Give feedback/video analysis 
  • Develop peer support/encouragement 
  • Vary practises to maintain motivation
  • Improve fitness levels
  • Team bonding exercise 
  • Avoid social cliques
  • Create a group identity, e.g. kit
  • Maintain stability if possible 

Social Loafing & Ringlemann Effect:

  • Individuals reduce their effort when in a group
  • Performers can hide their lack of effort amongst the effort of other group members
  • Can be eliminated if the contribution of an individual can be


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