Coasts 4 Coastal Management


Human Intervention in Coastal Landscapes

Coastal Management:

  • Hold the line
  • Advance the line
  • Managed retreat
  • Do nothing

Hard Engineering:

  • Sea walls
  • Rock armour
  • Gabions
  • Revetments
  • Groynes
  • Cliff fixing
  • Offshore reefs
  • Barrages

Sort Engineering:

  • Beach nourishment
  • Dune regeneration
  • Managed retreat
  • Land-use management
  • Do nothing

Sustainable Approaches to Coastal Flood and Erosion Management 

Shoreline Management Plans

  • 22 SMPs in the UK
  • Key features:
    • Assess the risks associated with the coastal evolution
    • Addresses the risk to people, the history and 
    • Be sustainable
    • Promote long term policies for the 22nd century
    • Economically viable
    • Comply with national and international legislation on conservation and biodiversity
    • They are ‘live working documents

Integrated Coastal Zone Management

  • Guidelines are written in Agenda 21
  • Involves stakeholders across different sectors to ensure broad support for the implementation of management strategies
  • Pressure on the environment is leading to 
    • Biodiversity losses
    • Habitat destruction
    • Pollution
    • Conflicts between stakeholders
    • Overcrowding
  • Coordinates policies including:
    • Nature conservation
    • Aquaculture
    • Fishing
    • Agriculture
    • Industry
    • Offshore wind energy
    • Shipping
    • Tourism
    • Infrastructure development
    • Development to adapt to and mitigate climate change
  • ICZM cycle
    • Planning
    • Decision making
    • Managing and monitoring of implementation 
    • Information collecting

Sunderbans, Bangladesh


  • Rising sea levels due to isostatic change from the deposition of sediment from the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta
  • Sea levels are expected to rise 30-100cm by 2100
  • Storm surges are to increase as there will be more cyclones with higher intensities


  • Bangladesh is too poor to mitigate the effects
  • They have to maintain 4800km of sea defences and build 4000km more
  • It would cost US$1billion
  • However if the sea


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