Elizabeth 1 - Government.


Political authority - background. 

- Govt = conciliar. 

Liz made decisions on major policies. - council advised her. 

Cecil ill in 1571 - stood down as principle secretary - Walsingham took his place. + Thomas Smith.

Cecil - made Lord Burghley and Lord Treasurer - to say thanks. 

Leicester remained favourite - sent to Nlands. 

When Councilors could not influence her - used parliament. 

- puritans 1571-72. laws on caths, execution of norfolk and marian plots.

Parliament very rarely body of oppostion.

- Paul wentworth - demanded execution of MQS.

- Peter Wentworth complained of Queen's management of parliament - rumours & message. - he was imprisoned in tower. 

Queen would not allowed - marriage and succession 1566 + 1593 and religion 1571 - discussed in parliament. 

- control - veto - 1571-72

parliament took her on over monopolies - 1599 + 1601

Authority decline 1590s'


- faction rivalry. 

Cecils v Essex.

Cecils - respectful of Queen's authority. - worked with her, servants of the crown. 

- She was always in charge - but her authority was challenged by Essex.


- her favourite. 

- from old nobility

-Leicester's step son

- stepped into his shoes 1588

- he was the son she never had - despite tantrums, showed she could handle him. 

- wanted him to do well, groomed him for high political office

-he was too immature. - if he had seen this he could've done well.

- she treated 2 main factions fairly. 

- 1593 he was made a privy councillor

- Liz spoilt Essex by allowing him to build up reputation as a military commander and a hero - leading expedition in 1590s , to attack Cadiz, and England nearly paid dearly for this - 2 armadas. Essex took fleet out of home waters and left England undefended without achieving anything lasting. 

- disobeyed her orders in France 1591, wasted her money and did not relieve without relieving siege of Rouen 

-1597 , made Essex Earl Marshall

- Liz never gave way and let him control her politically

- did not let him dominate Cecil's by influencing public appointments - always appointed ones Burghley recommended - best for job.

- Essex challenged her authority

* built up power base in counties - pressurised local gentry to declare favour to him - often dependent on him for land and local status - bullied them. 

* 1598 - he swore at the Queen over army size to Ireland. - she slapped him and he had to be stopped from drawing his sword - treason.  

- she gave him a last chance - Ireland 1599.

- 16'000 men as he had asked. 

- disobeyed her orders and instead of using the army against O'Neill not Earl of Tyrone (rebelling since 1594) - restore english control.  - came to an agreement with him

- Liz finally abandoned him  - would not receive him when he returned. - refused to renew his sweet wine monopoly. 

- gave him…


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