Geography: Population


The Demographic Transition Model

Based on experiences of Britain, and it can be used as a predictive model to show what may happen in developing in industrialising countries. Particularly strong as a descriptive model but less strong as a predictive model.


  • Dynamic, showing changes through time.
  • Shows what has happened in UK
  • Other countries when industrialising went through similar stages.
  • Newly industrialising countries are going through stages at a much faster rate.
  • Helps to explain what has happened and why.


  • Based on experiences of industrialising countries, so cannot be relevant non-industrailisng countries.
  • Assumes stage 2 follows from industrialisation, but in many cases this is not the case.
  • As well it assumes stage 3 followed decade after stage 2, and that the death rate fell as a consequence of changes brought by changes in the birth rate.
  • Original Model has had to adapted to include a fifth stage.
  • Countries in Africa have slipped back into Stage 1, because of HIV/Aids, and model does help to predict the future of these countries.

Over and Under population

Over-population is not the same as dense population and under population is not the same as sparse population. ---> linked to availability of resources. A resource rich country can hold a large population, at a good standard of living.

Optimum population = the level of technological…


Mr A Gibson


You know the drill..! Read, learn and then review your progress with the "Test Yourself" tool. This will also give you case studies too e.g. China.