History USA -Part two- 1890 to 1920 Republican dominance

  • Created by: H@r/3y
  • Created on: 27-08-20 17:54
  • Early 1890s two party politic system was not yet fully formed and still evolving in response to economic growth and social change
  • new forms of politics emerged
  • victory in 1896 election led to long repub. dominance
  • 1868-1932 Cleveland and Wilson = only two demos. to interrupt repub. chain from Grant to Hoover
  • rise of populism brought fundamental change and divisions in demo. party
  • progressivism reform movement influenced repub especially under Teddy Roosevelt 
  • 1912 progressivism = central issue and new national progressive party created
  • progressivism divided repub
  • wilson was influenced by progressive ideas leading to revival of demo party
  • 1867-1912 12 new states added to union containing new voters, political priorities and required main political parties to adapt/change
  • core of demo support was solid south- century after CW demo candidate won S every election except 1928 
  • this gave segregationist Southerners a strangehold on national party
  • demo. relied on support of industrial N/E from business, blue collar workers and immigrants
  • 1890s won lot of support in W states from farmers 
  • contradictory coalition of support was demo base until 1960s
  • era of week presidents political balance was very even, close election battles of Cleveland and Harrison in 1884, 1888, 1892 - not much difference between them both supported policies of 'sound money' backed by gold standard
  • 1890s proved to be turbulent= financial panic, economic depression violent strikes rise of Populism
  • Demo became more radical, divided
  • repubs were revitalised, pro business and swept to power 1896 turning point election
  • populism first a political party at state level in 1890 - became a grass roots mass movement, strong S, W Plains and rock mountains support
  • July 1892 Populists/Peoples party set manifesto at Omaha Platform, need to fight corruption in gov/legal system and save nation from 'moral, political and mateial ruin'- did well in elections and gained more support in 1894 mid terms
  • Aim of populism- grievances and discontent into political campaign for radical reform; gov ownership of rail; settlers/farmers acquire land from corporation/foreigners; graduated income tax; currency not controlled by private bankers; free silver
  • political impact of populism seemed sudden
  • from 1870s protest movements emerged= Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange) and Farmers Alliances
  • rural movements sometimes joined workers groups like knights of labour
  • 1890s these groups coalesced to form people party
  • impact of populism boosted by William Jennings Bryan 
  • Will J. Bryan = fundamental Christian, pacifist, anti imperialist, supported prohibition, free silver- won demo presidential nomination 1896 lost narrowly, also lost when ran 1900 q
  • and 1908
  • demo weakened by 1893 Panic and depression after- party more divided after poor showing in 1894 mid terms
  • cleveland and pro business allies (Bourbon Democrats) stuck to traditional laissez faire & gold standard
  • 1895 Cleveland got financial backing from Wall Street - J. pierpont morgan and allies lent $62 mill to gov to prop up gold reserve 
  • gave Clevelands opponents ammunition as he sided with money not little man
  • Mary Lease in 1895= "this is no longer a gov of the people for the people and by the people…


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