Internal and External Factors Affecting Educational Achievement


External Factors

- Material factors.

- Cultural background.

- Linguistic differences.

- Parental attitudes and socialisation.

- Racism in wider society.

- Subcultural attitudes.

Internal Factors

- Teacher/pupil interactions.

- Pro and anti-school subcultures.

- Setting and streaming.

- Institutional racism.

- Organisation of teaching, learning and assessment.

- Curriculum content.

Interactions between Internal and External

- Linguistic differences:

  • Language learnt at home.
  • Language of education-based upon middle-class values.

- Labelling:

  • Labels applied based on family background, appearance, language and…




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