Ownership and control of the mass media - is media content determined or a free expression of opinion?


-           ‘The media have taken control of media content away from the owners and editors and placed it in the hands of the users.’  - Jan 2012.

-          Identify and briefly explain three ways in which governments seek to influence or control the output of the mass media. –June 2011.

-          Evaluate the pluralist view of the ownership and control of the mass media. Jan 2011.

-          Evaluate Marxists theories of the ownership of the mass media - June 2010.

-          Identify and briefly explain three ways in which the news could be to be ‘a social construct that that is ‘manufactured’. - January 2010.



Doyle, 2002 argues that the RC elite own a dissemination of media and this undermines the idea of democracy. They influence public opinion a lot. WC and sudden are not free from control as the RC fools them into believing that they have free will. In fact they are predisposed and programmed to follow rules and regulations. A02 - link to social control - Hirschi.

Bagdikian argues that the concentration of ownership and control is low. It was from 50 corps to now 7 corps. For example - the press barons - Lord Camrose. Media owners control a lot more than we think.

Ed Miliband argues that the gvt controls how we see the world. Lack of opposing views and when there is they are demonised as extremists ie Islamic movements labelled as extreme. A02 - social action sociologists would argue that people can make sense of the world themselves through empirical experiences and through learning from groups and not from structuralist powers/ institutions such as the gvt, mass media etc

 Tunstall and Palmer argue that gvt controls are less harsh and more lenient. Therefore, owners like Murdoch with lots of power can dictate media content both indirectly and directly. Summarily, Murdoch can undermine gvt opinions as he has so much power. It is not be necessity he has to follow the rules. A02 pluralists argue that there are controls such as watershed and censorship that are effective. Also, the restriction of cross media ownership. A02 not effective enough as can still be dodged.

McQuail and lewin - gatekeeping controls is




free expression through (mass)media will only gain strenght, our civilization has progressed to a sufficient high level of complexity in which the flow of information cannot be controlled  by a few anymore, wel, at least that will be very difficult.. I heard something about a big decentralization in the monetary system which will make it harder for banks and such to embezzle money :) That's what i think anyways