Psychology GCSE - Unit 2 - Notes


Psychology GCSE - Unit 2


A biased sample is ungeneralisable.

A poorly constructed study has low validity.

Reliability: would the findings from a study be found again if a study was to be repeated.


Topic C: Do TV and video games affect young people’s behaviour?

C1a1: The role of the brain and aggression

C1a2: The role of hormones and aggression

C1a3: Social Learning Theory (SLT)

C1b1: Comparing theories of aggression

C1b2: Ramirez et al (2001): Culture and aggression

C2a1: Content analysis as a research method

C2b1: The ethics of psychological research

C2c1: Anderson and Dill (2000): video games and aggression

C2c2: Charlton et al (2000): St Helena study

C2c3: Williams et al (2000): does TV affect children’s behaviour

C3a1: Comparing Charlton et al (2000) and Williams et al (1981)

C3b1: The job of an educational psychologist

C3b2: Becoming an educational psychologist

C3b3: Educational psychology and anger management

C4a1: Introducing censorship and the 9 o’clock watershed

C4a2: For and against censorship and the watershed


Topic D: Why do we have phobias?


D1a1: Classical conditioning and phobias

D1a2: Social Learning Theory and phobias

D1a3: Phobias and preparedness

D1b1: The nature-nurture debate

D2a1: Questionnaires

D2b1: Evaluating questionnaires

D2c1: Experiments using animals: ethical issues

D2d1: Experiments using animals: practical issues

D2e1: Jones (1924): Curing a boy’s phobia

D2e2: Bennett-Levy and Marteau (1984): fear of animals

D3a1: How we treat phobias

D3b1: The ethics of therapies used to treat phobias

D3c1: The job of a clinical psychologist

D3c2: Becoming a clinical psychologist

D3c3: Clinical psychology and phobias

D4a1: Heinrichs et al (2005)

Topic E: Are Criminals born or made?


E1a1: Biology explanations for criminality

E1a2: Social Explanations for criminality

E1a3: Childrearing as an explanation for criminality

E1a4: Self fulfilling prophecy as an explanation for criminality

E1b1: Comparing theories of criminal behaviour

E2a1: Theilgaard (1984): the criminal gene

E2a2: Sigall and Ostrove(1975): attractiveness and jury decision making

E2a3: Madon (2004): Self fulfilling prophecy and drinking behaviour

E2b1: Is criminal research practical and ethical?

E2b2: Gathering information from convicted offenders

E3a1: Offender profiling

E3b1: The case of John Duffy

E3c1: The job of a forensic psychologist

E3c2: Becoming a forensic psychologist

E3c3: How a forensic psychologist might help treat offenders

E4a1: How defendant characteristics affect jury decision making.

Topic C: Do TV and video games affect young people’s behaviour?

C1a1: The role of the brain and aggression

·         One explanation for aggression is that it’s biological.

·         No gene found yet which is responsible for aggression.


Areas of the brain involved in aggression:

·         The limbic system – the area of the brain responsible for emotions.

-          Looks like a wishbone.

-          Responsible for emotions needed for survival such as fear and             aggression.


·         The amygdala – the area of the brain responsible for aggression.

-   Creates and recognises emotional responses.

-   Animal studies where the amygdala is removed




A summary of pretty much everything you need to pass Edexcel Psychology (GCSE) with flying colours!



where is the rest of it? it cuts off at C4a1