religious studies unit 4 revision notes


Unit 4

1.1 Muslim upbringing


 1.2 religious experience and belief in Allah

Religious experience


How this lead to or supports belief in Allah


A miracle

This is when something breaks the law of science and people attribute to Allah.

People who have experienced a miracle are convinced that only Allah is able/powerful enough to be the cause so it helps strengthen the belief in Allah.


Something that seems to break the law of science and makes you think only Allah could have done it.

An answered prayer

Prayer is a way of communicating with Allah and they may ask something from him and it has been answered.

This shows that Allah exists because only Allah can answer the prayer


A numinous experience

This is when an astonished feeling takes place where you think there is something greater/powerful than you.

For some people, this experience is so powerful that they believe that Allah exists and there is no one greater than you but Allah.


The feeling of the presence of something greater than you.

A conversion experience

When someone who did not believe in Allah changed their way of life and believes that Allah exists.

This is an experience where you are convinced that Allah exists and you're changing your way of life so that you are able to believe in Allah the way he permits.


When your life is changed by giving yourself to Allah.


 1.3 - the design argument and belief in Allah

What is design

Design argument

Example: Paley’s watch


the plan produced to show the look and function or workings of a building, garment, or other objects before it is made.


The world is so well ordered and everything is balanced to sustain life


The world is so beautiful with complex, interdependent parts making a whole


This complex world, therefore, must have a designer


The only thing powerful enough to design the universe is Allah


So, Allah must exist


A famous philosopher made analogy between the world and a watch, he said if someone who saw a watch and he has never seen one before would think that a person would have made it so he argued that it is the same concept between the world and the watch because the world is so carefully designed that means there must be a creator.


 1.4 – the causation argument and belief in Allah

Causation argument



Nothing can happen by itself


Everything that happens has to be caused by something else


So, the universe cannot have simply happened by itself


A very powerful force must have caused the universe as it is so great


Only Allah is great enough to be the cause


This means Allah must exist


Nothing can happen by itself everything has to have a cause like a loaf of bread dos not appear in your house without you


afnan alezawy


it was supposed to be tabled but it didn't work so just try to understand it