‘Russia and its Rulers’ 1855-1964 specification


Nature of Government

  • Autocracy, dictatorship and totalitarianism

  • Developments in central administration

  • Changes in local government

  • The extent and impact of reform

  • Methods of repression and enforcement

  • The nature, extent and effectiveness of opposition both before and after 1917

  • Attitudes of the Tsars, Provisional Government and Communists to political change

  • The extent of political change

The impact of dictatorial regimes on the economy and society of the Russian Empire and USSR

  • Changes to living and working conditions of urban and rural people including the impact on the peasants of:

    • Emancipation

    • Land Banks

    • Famines

    • NEP

    • Collectivisation

    • Virgin Lands scheme

  • Impact on industrial workers of:

    • Growth under the Tsars

    • War communism

    • NEP

    • Five Year Plans

  • Limitations on personal, political and religious freedom

  • Reasons for and extent of economic and social changes

Impact of war and revolution on the development of the Russian Empire and the USSR

  • The effects of the following wars on government, society, nationalities and the economy:

    • Crimean War

    • Russo-Japanese War

    • 1905 Revolution

    • 1917 Revolutions

    • First World


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