The development of Germany revsion-1871-1925

  • Created by: hibaq8
  • Created on: 30-04-16 16:22

Bismarck's Germany in 1871-1890-

  • Context= Austro-Prussian War in 1866- Six Weeks at Sadowa.
  • In the Peace of Prague 5 states were annexed- including Nossau, Hanover, S-H and Frankfurt.
  • Secret allince with the three Southern states, Wurrtemburg, Bavaria and Baden.
  • Franco-Prussian war in 1870- Bismarck doctored the Elms Telegram starting a war with France. Germany won and received £200,000 in reparations.
  • Kulturkampf-
  • National Liberals and Catholics were enemies.
  • Papal Infallibility in 1871- anything reagrding the Church the Pope was right.
  • He saw the Church as a "state within a state".
  • Bismarck was intolerant of the Polish minority in the East of Germany and was annoyed that the Church encouraged the use of the Polish language in areas that were predominantl Polish.
  • May Laws in 1873- Got rid of the Catholic section of the Prussian ministry of eduation. Education was controlled by the state not church.
  • Candidates for Priesthood had to go to university for 3 years.
  • 1876- 1400 Parishes were without Priests.
  • Jesuits were forbidden to establish new institutions and dissolve esisting institutions.
  • Civil marriage was introduced.
  • Birth, death and Civil marriage certificates were registered by the State not church.
  • Failure- Reintroduced tariffs.
  • Bismarck created an alliance with the Catholics and broke away with the National liberals.
  • He saw Socialism as a bigger threat.
  • Bismarck and the Nationalists- 1877- The National Liberals held 155 out of 399 seats.
  • "Bismarck or the National Liberals determined the characer of German policy- AJP Taylor.
  • 1874- Bismarck refused to accede to Liveral demands to grant editors the right to protect their sources as he believed that Journalistic freedom would protect dissident views.
  • Press law enabled government to imprison newspaper editors for publishing sensitive information or protecting sources.
  • 1874 Septennial law- review military spending every 7 years. 
  • Ab alliance of producersm agricltural and industrial sought protection for livelihood in form of tarifs the Liberals who supported free trade became unpopular. 
  • If Bismarck did establish tariffs he would have to abandon free trade.
  • Kulturkampf failed to destroy the Centre party. The Centre party dourble dtheir vote in 1874 and Bismarck extended the hand of 'friendship', which emant breaking with the Liberals.
  • Industrial Expansion- Geographical- River Rhine, Elbe and Ruhr were more accessible.
  • Food, raw materials and  some  manufactured goodsimproved exports.
  • Chemicals, machiens and textiles sold.
  • Railway increased to 42,86km's.
  • Steel output increased by 2 million tonnes from 1871-90.
  • Coal output increased by 41 million tonness, gaining Alsace-Lorraine in 1811 and Rhineland in 1814!
  • Cartels- Cooperation between business of similar trade associations grew ro pressure government to introduce protection cartels by 1889.
  • New Population- 36-42% by 1890. New Labour Force were educated.
  • Enterprising Farmer- supplied food to growing domestic urban market thanks to protection given to grain growers by Bismarck. Farm machinery includes fertilisers- Available, inreased yield. Rapid crop rotation methods, new crops, such as potatoes, sugar beet and cheap seasonal workers.
  • Declined Agriculture- Landowners who wouldn't modernise sold up mortgages Imports of grain from USA in 1870's caused decline until protection. Peasants went to farms.
  • Tariffs- Bismarck's…


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