Who did Macmillan appoint as his Chancellor of Exchequor?
Selwyn Lloyd
1 of 242
What did Selwyn Lloyd introduce?
Pay Pause
2 of 242
When did Selwyn Lloyd introduce the pay pause?
3 of 242
Why did Selwyn Lloyd introduce the pay pause?
to combat rising wages and higher consumer spending
4 of 242
What was the reaction to the paypause in 1961?
This caused outrage
5 of 242
What did Macmillan do to combat the issue of the pay pause?
Introduced a new Chancellor of Exchequor
6 of 242
What did the by-elections in 1961-62 see alot of conservatives do?
turn to liberals
7 of 242
What true tory seat did liberals win?
8 of 242
What did the defeat in the by elections cause Macmillan to do?
Sacked a third of his cabinet
9 of 242
What was the night of long knives?
Macmillan sacked a third of his cabinet
10 of 242
What was the publics reaction to the night of long knives?
didnt like the ruthlessness of this
11 of 242
What did Macmillan restore in the Conservative Party?
Party unity was restored
12 of 242
What was Macmillan named from the start of his run?
13 of 242
Why was Macmillan called 'SuperMac?'
increased the majority of seats to 100
14 of 242
Who did Macmillan have in the palm of his hands?
The media
15 of 242
What kind of conservative was Macmillan?
He was a 'One Nation Tory'
16 of 242
Did Macmillan believe in consensus?
17 of 242
What did Butler say growing economic prosperity was down to?
end of the Korean War
18 of 242
Why were high wages only good for workers?
It made Britain less economically competitive because it meant other countries were able to produce cheaper goods
19 of 242
Which countries were economically better than Britain?
France, Germany and Japan
20 of 242
What problems did decolonisation cause to the economy?
Decolonisation meant less exploition of raw materials
21 of 242
What did not being in the EEC mean for Britain?
meant that Britains trading partners were not as wealthy so couldnt buy as many British goods. This was goverments fault as they didnt nationalise British goods
22 of 242
When was the Vassal affair?
23 of 242
What was the Vassal affair?
This was when a civil servent, John Vassal, was caught spying for the Soviet Union
24 of 242
What was the effect of the Vassal affair on Britiain?
This made goverment look like they werent in control of their department
25 of 242
Who did Britian preform badly compared to?
France and Germany
26 of 242
What was lowest for Britain in Western Europe?
GPD (how much money Britain was making)
27 of 242
Why did Macmillan carry on dismantling the empire?
There was a consensus that the age of imperalism was dead. After fighting in WW2 it was difficult for Britain to justify her empire
28 of 242
Was Macmillans decolonisation successful?
In Africa with the exception of some countries like Kenya, this was a bloodless and remarkably smooth process
29 of 242
How many homes did the conservatives built in total?
In total they built 1.2 million homes
30 of 242
What meant that people could buy these homes?
the availability of credit meant that people could borrow money to buy their homes
31 of 242
What did Macmillan and the conservatives believe in about housing?
they believed in 'property owning democracy' encouraging people to buy their homes
32 of 242
What did the availability of credit (under Macmillan) mean?
People could borrow money and pay it back over a series of months
33 of 242
Why did the availability of credit create prosperity?
this meant that people could buy things like cars and TVs that they previously could not have afforded
34 of 242
how much had the ownership of cars increased from 1950-1965?
quadtrupled from 1.5 million to 5.5 million
35 of 242
When did Macmillan apply to join the EEC?
36 of 242
When was the EEC set up?
37 of 242
Why did Churchill refuse to join the EEC?
Churchill thought that Britains economy had more important commitments elsewhere with the USA and the commonwealth
38 of 242
Who was Britains application to join the EEC vetoed by?
39 of 242
How much of the Suez Canal did Britain own?
40 of 242
When was the Suez invasion?
41 of 242
What did Britain do when they found out about the plans for the nationalisation of the Suez Canal?
Eden entered secret agreement with France to invade Egypt- plan backfired
42 of 242
What was Americas reaction to the Suez Crisis?
America were outraged as they were not consulted
43 of 242
Why did Britain pull out of the Suez invasion?
America refused to lend Britain the money they desperatly needed if they didnt back out
44 of 242
What was the effect of the Suez on goverment?
Britain looked week because they pulled out on Americas wishes. Eden resigned
45 of 242
When was the Guillebaud commitee set up?
46 of 242
What was the Guillebaud commitee?
A committee to report on finances of the NHS
47 of 242
What did the Guillebaud committee prove?
Showed the NHS was cost effective
48 of 242
What did Churchill take from the Guillebaud comittee?
Churcill was confident to accept the structure of the Welfare State
49 of 242
How much did conservatives expenditure on social services increase?
39.2% to 43%
50 of 242
Who came up with the name of the 'Night of the long knives'?
The press
51 of 242
What was the effect of the Night of long knives on goverment?
Macmillan intended to strengthen goverment however it weakend it. Macmillan was made to seem clumsy and out of touch
52 of 242
What did Conservatives believe about employment?
Agreed with labour that it was important
53 of 242
How many were unemployed in 1951?
54 of 242
How many were unemployed by 1963?
55 of 242
What was the comparison between wages and prices under Macmillan?
Wages rose ahead of Prices
56 of 242
How much did the adverage weekly wage rise under the conservatives?
the adverage male wage rose from £8 in 1951 to £18 in 1964
57 of 242
What is the relationship between inflation and the wage during this period?
While inflation grew during this period it never overtook the increase in real wage
58 of 242
What did Macmillan do to defence spending?
Cut defence spending
59 of 242
what meant that Britain could reduce its expenditure on defence?
Detoriation of the atomic bomb in 1952
60 of 242
What did Britain cut their defence spending on?
Army and the navy
61 of 242
What percentage of GPD was defence spending in mid 50s?
62 of 242
What percentage of GPD was defence spending in 1964?
63 of 242
What amount of balance of payments did the conservatives face when they came into power?
£700 mllion
64 of 242
What cuts did the conservatives make to lower the balance of payments?
cuts on imports especially but also made cuts on credit and travel
65 of 242
What surplus had the conservatives made by 1952?
£295 million
66 of 242
What was bank rate raised to in 1952?
4% from 2%
67 of 242
What were British companies at the forefront of?
Oil companies, tobacco, shipping and financial markets
68 of 242
What caused a demand for British exports?
Marshall Aid from the USA and cost of British goods had dropped.
69 of 242
What was the argument against the welfare state?
the goverment couldnt afford to prodce a competitive economy and pay for welfare state
70 of 242
Why can Butler be argued to be the key figure in Churchills goverment?
By 1955, Britain had achieved near full employment, low inflation and no balance of payments problems
71 of 242
Name 4 of the conservatives aims.
Maintain welfare state, reduce taxation and public expenditure, develop nuclear weapons programme, raise productivitiy and exports
72 of 242
What relationship did conservatives want to have with Trade Unions?
They were strongly committed to maintaining good relations with Trade Unions that Labour had already started
73 of 242
What event showed Churchills previous bad relations with the Trade Unions?
General Strike of 1926
74 of 242
What did Churchill make clear to Trade Unions he would not appeal?
Trade Unions Act of 1946
75 of 242
Who efforts wth Trade Unions did Churchill strongly support?
Sir Walter Mancton
76 of 242
Why did Churchill try to stress the non-partisan nature of his goverment?
To try and capture more peoples votes as he didnt want to just capture some votes
77 of 242
Why did Churchill want to stress the non-partisan nature of his goverment? (labour)
Attlee had run things on tightly controlled cabinets and this wasnt particuarly liked by anyone
78 of 242
When did Butler publish the Industrial charter?
79 of 242
What was the Industrial charter?
A statement of principles that indicated the goverment were committed to a welfare state, mixed economy and full employment.
80 of 242
Why did Butler publish the Industrial charter?
Did this because of WW2 coalition
81 of 242
When did the Satire Industry boom?
early 1960s
82 of 242
Who did the Satire companies mock?
the political establishment and Harold Macmillan was often the brunt of these jokes
83 of 242
When was the CND set up?
84 of 242
Who set up the CND?
the bevanites
85 of 242
What did the CND fight for?
condemn nuclear weapons and unilaterism
86 of 242
What did some people march for?
87 of 242
Why did people argue for multilateralism?
Should own nuclear weapons so we dont become dependent on the USA
88 of 242
What caused Unilateralism to not be a vote winner?
The cold war
89 of 242
Why was nuclear weapons a problem for labour?
cause divide in the party
90 of 242
Who were the 3 reforming politicans in Churchills cabinet?
Anthony Eden, Rab Butler, Harold Macmillan
91 of 242
What was Eden in Churchills cabinet?
Foreign Secretary
92 of 242
What was Butler in Churchills cabinet?
Chancellor of the Exchequer
93 of 242
What was Macmillan in Churchills cabinet?
Minister of housing
94 of 242
What was a continuity of women in politics?
women still struggled to gain a seat/ voice in politics
95 of 242
How many women MPs were there in 1945?
96 of 242
How many women Mps were there in 1968?
97 of 242
Why did married men get priority over married women as being Mps?
they preffered a married man as they would automatically gain the wifes support. Whereas, married women was less likely to have a supportive husband
98 of 242
What was the womens section called within labour party?
National Labour womens advisory committee
99 of 242
Who did women have to compete with to get a seat in parliment?
Union sponsered candidates who help the advantage of guarenteed funds
100 of 242
What caused feminist campaigns to change?
Due to new, strong, prevailing public portrails of feminity
101 of 242
What was the new direction of feminist campaigns?
improve social conditions and make better the more difficult features of family life
102 of 242
What nuclear weapons programme did women begin to get involved in?
the National Council for the abolination of nuclear weapons
103 of 242
When was the national council for the abolination of nuclear weapons set up?
104 of 242
Why were women said to be joining the campaigns against nuclear weapons?
implication of nuclear weapons on families
105 of 242
What was there a continuation on for feminist campaigns?
there was little to no attempt of any new approaches to the issues concerning women
106 of 242
Which womens group campaigned against labours food rationing?
British housewives league
107 of 242
What did the SPG and WFI campaign for?
the same agenda set in 1920s- equal pay and end discrimination in work forces
108 of 242
What was the lack of change in womens campaigns said to be down to?
Unable to recruit new members
109 of 242
What was Butskellism?
Rab Butler and Gaitskell came up with a consensus of simular ideas
110 of 242
Who came up with the term 'Bustskellism'?
The economist
111 of 242
Who did fashion create a contrast between?
Youth and elders
112 of 242
Where became the fashion capital?
113 of 242
Who caused a fashion revolution?
Mary Quant
114 of 242
Why did the new fashion go against social norms?
Women used to wear very conservative clothing
115 of 242
Why was music able to have a big effect on teens?
Teens were beginning to be able to buy records
116 of 242
Which were 2 of the biggest bands in the music industry?
The Beatles and the Rolling Stones
117 of 242
What was significant about the Beatles and the Rolling Stones?
Both from a working classs background
118 of 242
Why was it signifcant the Beatles and the Rolling Stones were from working class backgrounds?
made less divide between middle and working class
119 of 242
What did transistor radios mean?
teens didnt have to listen to the same music as their elders- helped spread culture
120 of 242
What divide in teens did music cause?
The mods and the rockers
121 of 242
Who were the mods?
Listened to sophisticated pop music
122 of 242
Where and when was the national scale riot between the mods and the rockers?
Brighton in 1964
123 of 242
What did the riot between the mods and the rockers show?
showed the social change- youth used to respect their elders and would be at home with their elders
124 of 242
How much of the population did the teenager make up?
125 of 242
Why did the teenager make up so much of the population?
post war baby boom
126 of 242
Why was the large population of the teen significant?
more visible in society
127 of 242
Why were teenagers noticable in society?
made their own culture
128 of 242
Why were teens able to make their own culture?
teens had more money to buy clothes and records
129 of 242
Why did teens have more money?
More jobs available because increase in employment in factories and British emigration
130 of 242
Why did teens now have time to get a job?
girls didnt need to help mothers at home due to new labour sabing devices and boys didnt need to join the national service
131 of 242
What percentage of people were aware of class division?
132 of 242
Who was there a blurring of class boundaries between?
middle and working class
133 of 242
Which class remained untouched?
The upper class
134 of 242
How did the upper class try to maintain the class system?
Private school, 'taste' and how to spend leisure time
135 of 242
What showed that the goverment wanted to look after all classes?
The maintaining of the welfare state and nationalisation
136 of 242
What was the consumer revolution?
more luxury goods- could buy cars and latest fashionable clothes
137 of 242
What did car ownership raise from?
3 million to 7 million
138 of 242
How many households had a tv in 1961?
139 of 242
What gave people more time to have a holiday in the mid 50s?
Working hours were reduced and people were able to have 2 week payed holiday
140 of 242
In terms of credit why was a consumer revolution able to happen?
people felt confident in valuing our credit because there was a lot of jobs and wages were rising so people felt confident in paying it back
141 of 242
In terms of wage increase why was there a consumer revolution?
men had a wage increase which was due to stop go and tax cuts which then led to massive savings
142 of 242
Compared to which countries were Britiain in economic decline?
Germany, Japan and France
143 of 242
Why were Germany, France and Japan economically competitive?
recovery from ww2- huge investment in rebuilding and modernisation
144 of 242
What was an example of France being economically advanced?
electric trains
145 of 242
What were Britain spending alot of money on?
Nuclear weapons
146 of 242
What caused Britain to be spending alot of money on nuclear weapons?
Prime ministers were preocupied with world position. Also the cold war
147 of 242
What industry did many women carry on working in after WW2?
Light industries such as electronics-provided new opportunities
148 of 242
Why did women need to carry on working after the war?
Needed to provide for their families as many were widowed
149 of 242
How many women married women worked in the 1960s?
150 of 242
What were the belief about women working during this time?
people still believed in traditional values even though women were starting to take part in full time work
151 of 242
What transiton did the 60s see for feminism?
more relaxed image for feminism
152 of 242
what caused this more relaxed view of feminity?
new exciting styles of fashion and music, e.g. the mini skirt and public recognition of sex due to scandals
153 of 242
Who released the 'New Look' design?
Christian Dior
154 of 242
When was the 'New Look' design introduced?
155 of 242
Why was the 'New Look' design significant?
This rebelled against dreary utility wartime clothes and women began to look more feminine in the way they dressed
156 of 242
What did literature begin to say about the approach to mothercare?
Argued for a more child centure approach to upbringing
157 of 242
Who published a book about the child centred approach to upbringing?
John Bowlby
158 of 242
What did the new books about child care fail to address?
the sense of isolation that some women fwlt
159 of 242
Who wrote a book about the issues in mothercare for women?
Margarot Drabble
160 of 242
Why was it difficult for women to work and have babys?
There was a lack of nursuries or cover arrangements,employees were not ready to adjust work schedules to accomidate family needs
161 of 242
What impact did the Suez invasion have on the economy?
the pound came under huge pressure on the international exchanges and Bank of England lost £84 million during October
162 of 242
When was the Financial crisis?
163 of 242
What was the Financial crisis of 1957?
Inflation was rising due to wages running ahead of productivity- run on the pound
164 of 242
What was there a danger of because of the financial crisis?
danger that the pound would have to be devalued against the US dollar
165 of 242
Who was Britain trading with?
Empire and Commonwealth
166 of 242
Why was Britain lagging behind her European competitors?
Application to Britain joining the EEC was denied so didnt have good trading partners
167 of 242
How much of a payrise did Macmillan give railway workers?
168 of 242
Why was the pay rise for railway workers a problem?
many other occupations did not share the payrise- payrise happened at an uneven rate
169 of 242
What was introduced to combat inflation and why was it a problem?
Pay Pause- period of decline for workers
170 of 242
Why was Britain still seen as a leading power in the world?
They had the support from the US and they were part of the Grand Alliance that won the war
171 of 242
Why did America give us money?
Keynes convinced them to
172 of 242
What did nationalisation mean for goverment?
goverment had the right to direct the key aspects of the economy in order to create social justice and efficiency
173 of 242
What companies did goverment nationalise?
Bank of England, Coal, Road transport etc.
174 of 242
Why was nationalisation a positive?
Helped working class and increase in outputs is going to exports
175 of 242
How much did mens weekly wage increase?
£8 in 1951- £18 in 1964
176 of 242
Why was there an increase in the mens weekly wage?
stop go cycle and cutting of taxes
177 of 242
What did growth in mens weekly wage lead to?
massive savings and so boom in white goods
178 of 242
Why can Macmillan be described as an enlightened liberator?
showed swift realisation by adressing the countries needs for independence before they decended into violence.
179 of 242
Why can Macmillan not be described as an elightened liberator?
there was unrest among civilians- frustrated with shortages and political protests- A rise in strikes and political protests. also Canada wanted South Africa out of commonwealth and Macmillan said no- economic interests infront of racial issues
180 of 242
What shoes that independence was seizes by countries?
seized by nationalist movements
181 of 242
What event showed Britains problem with Britains colonial policies?
Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya
182 of 242
What event made Britain recognisider pace of decolonalisation?
Suez crisis
183 of 242
What were Britains reasons for decolonisation?
ww2 discredited empire; pressure off of nationalists in empire; value of keeping colonies was increasing after Suez; cost lots to run empire; wanted to leave quietly because of French and Belgians
184 of 242
What was there an increase in due to the Korean War?
increase in Anglo-American relations
185 of 242
Why did the Uk get involved in the Korean War?
Britain agreed to help as wanted US support and wanted to show countries Britain was able to play major role in world affairs despite economic constraints
186 of 242
What did the CND campaign for?
Nuclear Disarment
187 of 242
Were the CND influential?
most powerful pressure group in Britain
188 of 242
Who was the CND backed by?
backed by interlectuals and middle class
189 of 242
When did the CND do their biggest march?
190 of 242
Where was the CND march?
191 of 242
Who were Britain reliant on for nuclear weapons?
The US
192 of 242
What was the cooperation with the US like with nuclear weapons?
they worked closely with the US however it was very on and off
193 of 242
What event brought together the American and Uk relationship?
Korean conflict
194 of 242
What act did Churchill and the US president come up with about atomic bombs?
American Atomic Energy Act
195 of 242
What was the American Atomic Energy Act?
Sharing of information regarding atomic weapons
196 of 242
When did the American Atomic Energy Act end?
ended with Suez
197 of 242
What did Britain do that showed reliance on US war equipment?
Britains cancellation of bluestreak
198 of 242
In terms of the establishment, what was society shaping to be like?
Britain appeared to be becoming a more individualist and less conformist society which was less willing to follow lead set by British establishment
199 of 242
Who was the Establishment?
Made up by privaledged people who had influence where connections were important
200 of 242
Who is included in the Establishment?
businessmen, the media, and politicians
201 of 242
What did the Profumo affair expose?
sexual exploits within the goverment
202 of 242
What was significant about the Profumo affair?
tactics previously used by goverment to prevent the publication of sensitive information no longer existed
203 of 242
In the Profumo affair who do we see that Macmillan no longer has the support of?
The media- people in the establishment started to turn on each other
204 of 242
What was the consequence from the profumo affair?
goverment no longer had respect from society
205 of 242
Where did Britain want to join after loss of empire?
the eec
206 of 242
What did Britain feel the need to develop due to loss of empire?
develop nuclear weapons to maintain world position
207 of 242
What was passed to control immigration?
Commonwealth immigration Act 1962
208 of 242
What conflict did the commonwealth immigration act bring?
the labour party strongly opposed the act
209 of 242
What direction was Britain heading with immigration acceptance?
Goverment and local communities muddled along towards a multicultural society however without a clear direction which shows the changing attitudes about race relations
210 of 242
Why was there conflict between the working class and immigrants?
working class would have to compete with the immigrants. Immigrants would work for lower wage so people lost out on jobs
211 of 242
What event brought racial tensions to national attention
Nottinghill riots
212 of 242
What effect did Nottinghill riots have?
It altered many peoples views on immigration- people believed immigrant were bringing over violence
213 of 242
What event led to Nottinghill riots?
Strong Carribean community had grown in Nottinghill, London
214 of 242
What were the Nottinghill riots?
Youths chased Caribbeans down the streets; milk bottes and petrol bottles were thrown
215 of 242
When was the British Nationality Act?
216 of 242
What was the British Nationality Act?
the right to move to Britain if commonwealth citizen
217 of 242
What jobs did alot of immigrants come to fill?
NHS recruitment- need for nurses
218 of 242
What event was there enthusiasm shown for the commonwealth?
Queen Elizabeths coronation
219 of 242
Before the Nottinghill riot, what was society like between immigrants and the public?
noticable tolarance and getting along
220 of 242
What did authorities think about immigrants?
authorities regarded them as economically desireable due to filling low wage jos
221 of 242
What meant that there were alot of jobs for immigrants to fill?
1.2 Million British citizens leaving the country
222 of 242
When was there a survey on thoughts on immigration?
223 of 242
How many people said they would refuse to work with a black person in survey in 1965?
1 in 5
224 of 242
How many people said they would refuse to live next door to a black person in 1965?
1 in 2
225 of 242
How many people said that they refused mixed marriages?
226 of 242
What did a sign say regarding immigration in Birmingham?
'No Irish, no blacks, no dogs'
227 of 242
What were conservatives budgets often used for?
short term measures to buy votes in general elections
228 of 242
Name an example from 1959 of a conservative budget to buy votes?
introduced a range of tax cuts
229 of 242
What did critics say about conservative budgets?
in the long term it damaged the economy because it created debt
230 of 242
How much was the balance of payments in 1964?
£800 million
231 of 242
What did decolonisation cause for Britain in terms of resource?
had to pay for resources they once openly exploited
232 of 242
What consequence did decolonisation have on colonies?
lost out on easier access to healthcare, cheaper goods, better education
233 of 242
How did WW2 help nationalists argument for decolonisation?
it exposed allied propaganda which promoted freedom so put pressure on Britain
234 of 242
When was Nigeria given full indepence?
235 of 242
When did Nigerias fight for independence begin?
236 of 242
When did Nigerias fight for independence gain more support?
1930s economic depression
237 of 242
Why did Nigeria want indepence?
due to increased authority given to ruling elite and unfair taxation
238 of 242
What was Britains nuclear strategy?
strategy was to stop being reliant on the US for information concerning atomic bomb
239 of 242
Who was Britains nuclear strategy popular with?
popular with the public as it meant troops abroad could be brought home and goverment could phase out National Service by 1960
240 of 242
what was the significance of the wind of change speech?
first sign goverment accepted day of empire was over and it dramatically speeded up process of African indepence, first time a senior international figure had given voice to growing protest against strict racial segregation in South Africa
241 of 242
Why did Macmillan give the Wind of Change speech?
gave speech because of terrible conditions they were currently suffering
242 of 242

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Card 2


What did Selwyn Lloyd introduce?


Pay Pause

Card 3


When did Selwyn Lloyd introduce the pay pause?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why did Selwyn Lloyd introduce the pay pause?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What was the reaction to the paypause in 1961?


Preview of the front of card 5
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