Women in Germany

  • Created by: Sui8
  • Created on: 17-03-20 18:41
Describe the status of women pre-WWI
Had no voting rights, married women had no legal status, unmarried women could study for a profession but couldn't take exams to qualify and practise
1 of 50
Describe Weimar's attitudes to women in 1 sentence
Liberal in theory, traditional in practice
2 of 50
What did the 1918 (12th Nov) Constitution grant women?
Gave women, "in principle", equal rights e.g voting rights. Said marriage should be an equal union and that women should be allowed to enter professions
3 of 50
How did WWI impact employment for women?
Led to an increase in female employment e.g 75% of working age women were in work
4 of 50
How did armament manufacture's workforce change due to WWI?
In 1913, no women employees. 1918, 20,000 women worked in this area
5 of 50
What suggests Weimar conservatism towards the role/status of women?
Weimar policy was that women should give up their jobs to returning soldiers
6 of 50
Describe the general attitude towards working women
Were met with opposition. Women workers were seen as temporary but professions needed long-term training
7 of 50
In 1925, how many female doctors were there?
2,500+. Had almost doubled by 1933
8 of 50
How many female lawyers were there in 1933?
36. 251 women were working in the lower levels of the legal profession in 1933
9 of 50
How many women were working in the lower levels of the legal profession in 1925?
54 women
10 of 50
What suggests women were restricted in terms of economic mobility in 1925?
Of the 36% working in 1925, over half worked in poorly paid manual jobs
11 of 50
Why does it seem like the situation had not improved by 1935?
500,000 women were doing poorly paid work from home (250,000 in 1925)
12 of 50
What was the "New Woman"?
Young, educated, unmarried women (come of age during WWI) who wanted independence
13 of 50
Name 3 identifying traits of a "New Woman"?
'revealing' clothes, short hair, smoked, worked more “white blouse” jobs, behaved w/ the freedom of a man
14 of 50
Did the "New Woman" reflect Germany's views?
Not entirely. Mostly city based and part of 1920's city culture. Was criticized by politicians/media (immoral?)
15 of 50
Who supported the "New Woman"?
Film and advertisement. Presented this character as someone to aspire to
16 of 50
How were "New Women" treated?
Still subject to inequalities e.g gender and wage discrimination. Were unlikely to find an equal union of marriage.
17 of 50
Were women employment levels impacted by the Great Depression?
To a limited extent (not as much as men; cheaper to employ e.g 1932, 33% of women were unemployed. 46% of men were unemployed
18 of 50
What happened in May 1932 (GD)?
Decree passed for dismissal of married women in government service if husbands earning
19 of 50
Give 2 figures showing how the role of women in politics had changed (W)
90% turnout for the 1st election. Btw 1919-1932, 112 women were elected to the Reichstag
20 of 50
What was the role of women in Nazi Germany?
Be good stay at home mothers/homemakers (enforced by school curriculum)
21 of 50
What law was passed in June 1933? Outline it
Law for the Encouragement of Marriage. All newly married couples would receive a loan of 1,000 marks and could be 'cleared' with the birth of 4 kids. Aimed to boost the population
22 of 50
What was 1,000 marks equivalent to? How successful was it?
9 months average income. 800,000 couples accepted this offer
23 of 50
Describe a law being discussed in 1943
All women should have 4 children and that the fathers had to be “racially pure”.
24 of 50
What adaptation did Heimlich Himmler support?
If a family had 4 kids, the father had to be released to father more children outside of his marriage
25 of 50
How were women who wanted to be mothers/wives treated differently?
They had higher status and access to better healthcare
26 of 50
Describe Nazi impact on female employment
Many female doctors and civil servants were sacked (followed by female teachers and lawyers.)
27 of 50
When were all women in civil service dismissed?
30 June 1933
28 of 50
In 1933, what % of female teachers lost their jobs?
29 of 50
In 1933, how many female civil servants lost their jobs?
30 of 50
What happened on the 12th August?
Germany would award the Motherhood Cross to women w/ 4+ kids
31 of 50
What was The Sterilsation Law of 1933?
It allowed the sterilisation of non-Aryan women, preventing them from having children.
32 of 50
How did WWII impact legislations?
1937 law was passed. Meant women had to do a “Duty Year” (work ‘patriotically’) to make up for the skills shortages.
33 of 50
How many women were working in 1939?
34 of 50
What year was Lebensborn introduced?
12 December 1935
35 of 50
What was Lebensborn?
A programme encouraging Aryan women to 'donate' a child to the state (impregnated by ** men in an easily identifiable building; had a white flag with a red symbol))
36 of 50
Were the Nazis successful in increasing the birth rate?
Yes. In 1936, there were 30% more births than there had been in 1933
37 of 50
True or False: Did marriages increase by 21% btw 1933-39
38 of 50
What was Hitler's view on the role of women?
Different tasks to men but were of equal importance.
39 of 50
How did WWII impact women?
Gender imbalance, more women had to work (more independent)
40 of 50
How many more women were there than men after WWII?
7,300,000 (3,000,000 German soldiers died)
41 of 50
FRG and Nazi views on the role of women
Women should take on domestic roles (mother and wife). The CDU's unwillingness to encourage female workers split the Reischstag
42 of 50
State a statistic showing FRG attitudes to women
1982 – 70% men and 68% women thought women should stop working when married
43 of 50
How did the Civil Code reinforce traditional gender roles?
Civil Code Law meant women could only work if it didn’t interfere with being wife and mother
44 of 50
When could women work without the permission of a husband?
After 1977
45 of 50
What % of men and women said men's career was more important in 1982?
50% men and 54% women
46 of 50
What gave women equal rights in marriage in 1977?
The Marriage and Family law was passed
47 of 50
Ministry for Family Affairs ...
gave financial benefits to wives and mothers (as support rather than “incentive” or manipulation)
48 of 50
When were abortion right granted?
49 of 50
When were abortion rights withdrawn?
1975 (protect the foetus)
50 of 50

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Describe Weimar's attitudes to women in 1 sentence


Liberal in theory, traditional in practice

Card 3


What did the 1918 (12th Nov) Constitution grant women?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How did WWI impact employment for women?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How did armament manufacture's workforce change due to WWI?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Germany and West Germany 1918-89 resources »