Attiudes, Achievement Motivation and Attribution

What is an attitude?
A predisposition to act in a certain way towards an attitude object. It is a learned emotional and and behavioural response to a stimulus
1 of 33
What are the characteristics of attitudes?
Enduring and unstable ( which mean changeable) , directed towards an attitude object
2 of 33
What is an attitude object?
The people subject or situation towards which an attitude is directed
3 of 33
What is prejudice?
Is a pre-judgement arising from an evaluation based on unfounded beliefs and opinions
4 of 33
What are examples of negative prejudice?
gender, age , race
5 of 33
What are orgins of attitudes?
experience, socialisation, peer group, the media, culture
6 of 33
What are the components of the triadic model?
cognitive component, affective component, behavioural component
7 of 33
What is the cognitve component?
Reflects beliefs and knowledge that an individual holds about an attitude object ( what you believe)
8 of 33
What is the affective component?
Consists of feelings or an emotional response towards an attiutde object is made (how you feel)
9 of 33
What is the behavioural component?
Concerns how a person intends to behave or respond towards an attitude object (actions)
10 of 33
What is cognitive dissonance theory?
By changing one attitude component a person will experience emotional conflict . Dissonace may cause a negative attitude to be changed
11 of 33
How can attitudes be changed?
The persuader- high status and knowledgable. The message- Presented in a way which encourages chnage. The recipients- willing to change. The situation- Change is more likely if other persuaders are present
12 of 33
What is achievement motivation?
Is the athletes predisposition to approachor avoid competitive situations
13 of 33
What are the theorists who came up with achievement motivation?
Atkinson and McClelland
14 of 33
What are the characteristics of High Nach?
Low need to avoid failue, Approach behaviour adopted, Challenge is accepted, Risks are undertaken, Shows persistance when task gets difficult, Success attributed to internal factors, Failure attributed to external factors, mastery orientation
15 of 33
What are the characteristics of a Low Nach/
high need to avoid failure, Avoidance behaviour adopted, Challenge is rejected, Risks are declined, Curtails effect when task is difficult, Success atributed to external factors, failure attributed towars internal factors, learned helplessness
16 of 33
What is a TAS?
Tendency to approach success, motivated to succeed, more competitive and stimulated by situations involving risk, perceive east tasks boring, enjoy being evaluated
17 of 33
What is a TAF?
Tendancy to avoid failure, scared of failure so lack competetive edge, hate being evaluated as it might lower self-esteem, more likely to adopt challenges where probability of success is high
18 of 33
What are the sitiuational factors?
Probability of success- the extent to which success is likely, incentive value of success- the intrinsic value of experienced by the individual after success
19 of 33
What are the strategies to ensure Nach is afdopted?
Childhood experiences, social environment, cultural differences, goal setting, expectation, attribution
20 of 33
How do you change a NAF into a Nach?
Give success and a feeling of pride, reduce punishment, avoid situations where defeat is likely, set tasks with a choice difficulty, stress performance rather than outcome, increase task difficulty slowly
21 of 33
What is attribution theory?
Common reasons coaches and players give for their success and failure
22 of 33
What model is associated with attribution theory?
Weiners model
23 of 33
What is the locus of causality?
Personal control - Internal External
24 of 33
What is stability?
Changeable or permenant - stable unstable
25 of 33
What is ability?
The extent of the performers capacity to cope with a sporting task
26 of 33
What is task difficulty?
The extent of the prooblems posed by the task including stregth of opposition
27 of 33
What is the effort?
Refers to the amount of mental and physical effort the performer gives to a task
28 of 33
What is luck?
Factors attributed to chance
29 of 33
What are characteristics of high achievers?
Attribute success to internal factors, failure put down to external factors- self serving bias, therefore seen as a temporary set back, remain persistant in the force of failyre, promote mastery orientation
30 of 33
What are charcteristics of low achievers?
Attribute lack of successs to internal factors, adopt avoidance behaviour, attribute success to external factors, take away confidence so reduce expectation of future success, learned helplessness, cause individual to aviod activity
31 of 33
what does attribution retraining involve?
Changing the performers perception of the causes of failure. It focuses the reasons for failure onto internal, unstable and controllable factors such as effort
32 of 33
What does attribution retraining do?
Raises confidence, changes avoidance behaviour, encourages mastery orientation
33 of 33

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the characteristics of attitudes?


Enduring and unstable ( which mean changeable) , directed towards an attitude object

Card 3


What is an attitude object?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is prejudice?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are examples of negative prejudice?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Sports psychology resources »