What is a diet?
What food and drink you consume each day
1 of 151
What is a balanced diet?
When you eat the right amount and types of foods and all the correct nutrients
2 of 151
List the main 5 nutrients and what they are used for
Carbs - energy, Protein - muscle growth and development, Fat - organ protection, vitamins and minerals, water - for chemical reactions
3 of 151
What is starvation?
No food
4 of 151
What is malnutrition?
Not enough nutrients
5 of 151
What is obesity?
Too much fatty foods
6 of 151
What is anorexia?
When you can't grow fat
7 of 151
What is anabolism?
The construction of molecules from smaller units
8 of 151
What is catabolism?
The deconstruction of molecules into smaller units
9 of 151
What is metabolism?
The process in which a material substance is produced, maintained, and destroyed in an organism
10 of 151
What factors effect energy needed in your diet?
Age, Activity and sex
11 of 151
What is diabetes?
When your pancreas stops working and releasing insulin in order to regulate your blood sugars
12 of 151
Whats the difference between health and fitness?
Health is your overall well being, fitness is your physical well being
13 of 151
What happens if you have to many nutrients or vitamins?
You get posioned
14 of 151
What happens if you don't get enough nutrients or vitamins?
You get deficencies
15 of 151
Why do you need iron?
To produce red blood cells
16 of 151
Why do you need Calcium?
TO get strong bones
17 of 151
What are the effects of malnutrition?
Slow growth, fatigue, infection...
18 of 151
Why is exercise so important?
It decreases the amount of stored fat and boosts your metabolic rate
19 of 151
What other factor can effect health and fitness?
20 of 151
What is the vitamin C deficiency?
21 of 151
What is the calcium deficiency
Brittle bones
22 of 151
What is the iron deficiency?
23 of 151
What is a pathogen?
A microorganism that causes a disease
24 of 151
Why do pathogens make use feel ill?
Secret toxins, damaging cells and reproduce rapidly
25 of 151
How are pathogens spread?
Bodily fluids, Droplet inflections, food and water, skin to skin
26 of 151
What are the bodies defense against pathogens?
Skin, Mucus, Scab, Tears, Acid
27 of 151
What is the incubation period?
When pathogens in your body are not doing anything but reproducing
28 of 151
Why is a fever a common symptom to all infections?
As your body raises its temperature to try and kill the pathogens
29 of 151
Why do different symptoms occur?
As different pathogens release different toxins and in different areas
30 of 151
What does a phagocyte do?
Surrounds pathogen, then secrets chemicals to make the pathogen dissolve then absorbs it
31 of 151
What are antigens?
The chemical 'barcodes' of cells in the body which is a protein on the cell membrane
32 of 151
How does your body identify pathogens?
White blood cells analyze antigens on cells.
33 of 151
What happens if it is a 'foreign antigen'?
White blood cells start to produce proteins called antibodies to lock onto that type of antigen, antibodies chain together the pathogens and then the phagocyte comes and eats them all!
34 of 151
What happens if that same pathogen enters the body?
The antibodies are saved so its quick and easy to rapidly produce the antibodies to stop the pathogen doing anything
35 of 151
What are antitoxins?
Things that counteract toxins produced by the invading bacteria
36 of 151
What is a vaccination?
A dead or weakened version of the pathogen
37 of 151
What are analgesics?
Painkillers to relieve sympotoms
38 of 151
What are antivirals?
Chemicals that attack viruses
39 of 151
What are antibiotics?
Chemicals that kill bacteria
40 of 151
How do vaccines work?
The pathogen is harmless so it gives you time to produce the correct antibodies without becoming ill
41 of 151
What is MMR?
Measles, Mumps, Rubella
42 of 151
What are booster injections?
Injections to increase levels of antibodies?
43 of 151
What are the pros to vaccinations?
Been able to control diseases in uk, stop epidemics
44 of 151
What are the cons?
Don't always work, bad reactions to vaccinations
45 of 151
Whats the problem surrounding antibiotics?
Bacteria can mutate to become resistant to it if over used
46 of 151
What needs to be controlled in a petri dish?
Everything needs to be sterilized, Lid closed
47 of 151
What was the significance of Semmelweis?
Cut down death rate by using hygiene and washing hands
48 of 151
What is a super bug?
A bacteria that is resistant to antibiotics
49 of 151
Why is it hard to produce vaccines against viruses?
As they mutate a lot
50 of 151
What is the stimulus?
Changes in our enviroment
51 of 151
What is CNS?
Central nervous system
52 of 151
*Responces diagram*
*Responces diagram*
53 of 151
What is a synapse?
The connection between two neurones
54 of 151
How is the signal transferred?
By chemicals which diffuse across the gap
55 of 151
What are reflexes?
Automatic responses
56 of 151
Why don't reflexes go through your brain?
As they need to be quick
57 of 151
What is a hormone?
A chemical which is released directly into the blood, which has long effects
58 of 151
What are the differences between nerves and hormones?
Nerves are fast actions over short times in precise areas, hormones are slower in action lasting a long time and in general areas
59 of 151
What is the menstrual cycle?
A 28 day cycle which its purpose is to prepare eggs for fertilisation
60 of 151
What happens on day 1 of the cycle?
Uterus lining breaks down for 4 days
61 of 151
What happens on day 4-14?
Blood vessels build up to hold fertilized egg
62 of 151
What happens on day 14?
An egg is released
63 of 151
What happens form days 14-28?
Spongy wall stays there, if no fertilized egg lands there then the cycle restarts
64 of 151
What is FSH?
Follicle stimulation hormone which causes the egg to mature in the ovaries and stimulates ovaries to produce oestrogen
65 of 151
What is Oestrogen?
A hormone that causes the pituitary gland to produce LH and inhibits the production of of FSH
66 of 151
What is LH?
A hormone that stimulates the release of the egg
67 of 151
What does progesterone do?
Fluffs up uterus lining
68 of 151
What doe the pill contain?
High levels of oestrogen and progesterone to stop people form getting pregnant
69 of 151
What are the pros of the pill?
99% effective, reduces some types of cancers
70 of 151
What are the cons of the pill?
Not 100% effective, has side effects and doesnt stop STDs
71 of 151
What happens if women dont have high enough LH and FSH levels
Given an injection
72 of 151
What is infertility?
When a person cannot produce offspring
73 of 151
What happens in IVF?
Eggs are collected then are fertilised by the sperm in a lab and grown into embryos
74 of 151
What are the pros to IVF?
People can have children
75 of 151
Whats the cons to IVF?
Costs loads, 20% are twins, can lead to long term disabilites
76 of 151
What is the plant hormone that controls growth?
77 of 151
Where is auxin produced?
Tips of shoots and in the roots
78 of 151
What happens in phototropism?
Cells on the shaded side elongate faster as cells are not damaged
79 of 151
What happens in gravitropism?
When cells on the lower side grow faster as gravity causes an unequal distribution of auxin
80 of 151
What happens in hydro tropism?
The side with the most moisture inhibits the grow on that side
81 of 151
How can you clone a plant?
Get some plant cuttings, add rooting powder (contains auxin) they'll produce roots rapidly and start growing
82 of 151
What is homeostasis?
The constant maintenance of an internal enviroment
83 of 151
Why does homeostasis occur?
To make sure every thing works properly at the right level
84 of 151
What regulates ion content?
85 of 151
What regulates Sugar content?
86 of 151
How can water be lost form the body?
Through sweating, Lungs and urine
87 of 151
What is a drug?
A chemical that alters the chemistry of our body
88 of 151
What are statins?
Drugs that lower your blood cholestrol and lower heart risks
89 of 151
What are anabolic steroids?
Drugs that increase your muscle size and your heart rate
90 of 151
What drugs are used to treat depression?
Prozat and hypericum
91 of 151
What was thalidomide used for in the 50's?
A sleeping pill for pregnant women
92 of 151
What was wrong with thalidomide?
Gave severe limp deformities
93 of 151
What has it been used for since?
To treat leprosy
94 of 151
What is the first stage of drug testing?
Drugs are tested on human cell tissue in the lab
95 of 151
What is the second stage of drug testing?
Drugs are tested on live animals to test for the toxicity and to see the effects
96 of 151
What happens on the third stage of drug testing?
Drugs are passed onto human volunteers that are healthy.
97 of 151
What is the fourth stage of drug testing?
Testing on humans who actually have the illness
98 of 151
What trials are carried out to ensure drug results are correct?
Blind trials so they can eliminate the placebo effect
99 of 151
What is addiction?
When your body cannot function without something
100 of 151
What are withdrawal symptoms?
Symptoms you get when you stop taking the drugs, things like sweating headaches...
101 of 151
What are recreational drugs?
Drugs that are taken for pleasure
102 of 151
Why might someone take recreational drugs?
Fun, stress relief, relaxation...
103 of 151
What are two legal recreational drugs?
Alcohol and smoking
104 of 151
What adaptations do desert animals have?
Large surface area to volume ratio, efficient with water, thin layers of body fat and a sandy camouflage
105 of 151
What adaptations do Arctic animals have?
Small surface area to volume ratio, well insulated with a thick layer of blubber and thick hairy coats plus camo
106 of 151
How have cacti reduced water loss in the desert?
Have spines instead of leaves as plants lose water vapor from their leaves, smaller surface area, have deep roots
107 of 151
How do plants and animals deter predators?
Have bright colours, armor or poisons
108 of 151
What do plants need to survive?
Light, space, water and minerals
109 of 151
What do animals need to survive?
Space, food, water, mates
110 of 151
What are the living factors that cause environmental change?
Diseases, predators, prey, competitors
111 of 151
What are the non-living factors that cause environmental change?
Temperature, rainfall, pollution
112 of 151
How can environmental change affect populations?
Population increases, population decreases, Population distribution
113 of 151
What is an indicator species?
An organism that are very sensitive to changes in there environment and show signs of it
114 of 151
What is the indicator species for air?
Lichen, sensitive to sulphur dioxide
115 of 151
What is the indicator species for water?
Mayfly lavae, sensitive to dissolved water in rivers
116 of 151
What is another good indicator species?
Invertebrates, as they live in heavily polluted areas.
117 of 151
How can satellites be used to determine environmental changes?
Measure sea surface temperature, Measure how much snow there is.
118 of 151
What is a trophic level?
A feeding level
119 of 151
What does each bar on a pyramid of biomass show?
Mass of living material
120 of 151
What is at the bottom of a pyramid of biomass?
The producer
121 of 151
What follows the producer?
Primary consumer then the secondary consumer...
122 of 151
Where do plants get their energy from?
The sun
123 of 151
How is biomass lost going up each trophic level?
Through movement, constant temperatures, growth, waste...
124 of 151
Why are pyramids of biomass short?
As it would be unefficient as hardly any energy would be passed on as so much would be lost
125 of 151
How are elements returned to the environment?
Through waste or when the organisms die
126 of 151
How do the materials of dead animals and plants get broken down?
Through microorganisms called decomposers
127 of 151
What conditions are needed for decomposition to take place?
Warm, moist, oxygen
128 of 151
What is fossilization?
The process in which decayed plant and animal material becomes fossil fuels
129 of 151
What is the first cell of every new living thing?
130 of 151
What is the name given to sex cells?
131 of 151
What does the nucleus do?
Stores genetic information and orders the cell what to do
132 of 151
What is a string of genes?
133 of 151
What is a cell with only 23 chromosomes called?
134 of 151
What makes up a gene?
135 of 151
What is genetic variation?
Combing of genes
136 of 151
What is a different version of the same gene called?
137 of 151
What is the genotype?
The genetic make-up
138 of 151
What is the phenotype?
The observable characteristics of an individual resulting from environmental factors.
139 of 151
What is sexual reproduction?
The fusion of a male and female gamete to share genetic information
140 of 151
What is asexual reproduction?
No genetic variation and there is only one parent
141 of 151
What organisms produce offspring via asexual reproduction?
Plants and bacteria
142 of 151
What are embryo transplants?
Where the the sperm cells are taken from the best genetic mother and father. The embryo is left to develop then is split before it become specialized, then implanted into surrogate mothers
143 of 151
What is adult cell cloning?
Where the nucleus is taken out of an unfertilised egg then a complete set of chromosomes is implanted into that, It is then stimulated by an electric shock to make it divide then implanted into a surrogate mother
144 of 151
What are the problems surrounding cloning?
Limited gene pool, playing the roll of god
145 of 151
How does genetic engineering work?
Useful gene is cut from one organism using enzymes and then inserted into the plasmid
146 of 151
What is evolution?
The process of a species developing gradually over time to adapt and survive to its environment
147 of 151
How does a species evolve?
Sexual reproduction leads to a mutation, mutation leads to variation, which might give it an advantage, overpopulation leads to survival of the fittest and the mutation allows it to live longer and have more sex to pass its genes on.
148 of 151
What was Darwins theory?
Origin of species where all living organisms had evolved from simpler life forms, from the process of natural selection. The most adapted to its environment would survive to pass on its genes
149 of 151
What was lamaracks theory?
That all species had developed from worms and that species were different because of inheritance of acquired characteristics. Also that organisms would evolve during their lifetime.
150 of 151
What is a species?
A group of organism that have the same chromosome structure and can interbreed to create offspring
151 of 151

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a balanced diet?


When you eat the right amount and types of foods and all the correct nutrients

Card 3


List the main 5 nutrients and what they are used for


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is starvation?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is malnutrition?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all B1 resources »