B1 Understanding organisms

  • Created by: GraceLong
  • Created on: 23-02-16 17:19
What is systolic pressure?
The maximum pressure the heart produces
1 of 43
Give a definition of fitness
Ability to do physical exercise. Measured by: strength, flexibility, stamina, agility, speed
2 of 43
Give a definition of health
Being free from disease caused by pathogens e.g. bacteria and viruses
3 of 43
What can cause high blood pressure?
Blood pressure is increased if there is a build up of cholesterol, narrowing the arteries so less blood gets though and more pressure on the heart.
4 of 43
Why does carbon monoxide decrease the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood?
The carbon monoxide combines with the haemoglobin preventing it combining with the oxygen.
5 of 43
Name the two substances that make up fats.
Fatty acids and glycerol
6 of 43
Which factors will affect someones diet?
Age, gender, level of activity, religion, vegetarian/vegan or medical issues.
7 of 43
What can too little protein in the diet cause?
8 of 43
Give some examples of where first-class proteins come from?
Meat and fish
9 of 43
What is BMI?
Body Mass Index, it gives indications to whether someone is overweight - obese.
10 of 43
Give an example of a vector and why it is a vector?
Mosquitoes because they carry plasmodium which doesn't harm the mosquito
11 of 43
What do parasites do?
Feed on another living organism causing it harm
12 of 43
Give examples of benign and malignant tumours.
Benign - warts because the divide slowly and are harmless. Malignant- cancers because the growth is uncontrolled and may spread
13 of 43
How does the body protect itself from a pathogen?
Antibodies lock onto antigens which are on the surface of the pathogen
14 of 43
Give three steps in the process of immunisation.
1) Harmless pathogen carrying antigens injected in body 2) Antigens trigger response of white blood cells producing antibodies 3) Memory cells remain in the body providing long lasting immunity
15 of 43
Describe what happens in a blind trial
The patient does not know if they are receiving the new drug or the placebo to avoid biased opinions
16 of 43
What could excessive use of antibodies result in?
Resistant forms of bacteria becoming common e.g. MRSA has thrived and caused serious illness
17 of 43
What do the cornea and the lens do to the light rays?
18 of 43
What does binocular vision help with?
Judging distances
19 of 43
Why are some people long-sighted? How is it corrected?
The eyeball is too short and the lens is too thin causing the image to focus behind the retina. It is corrected using a convex lens
20 of 43
Where do nerve impulses pass along?
The axon (the long stem looking thing in a nerve)
21 of 43
What happens in a reflex arc?
Stimulus -> Receptor -> Sensory neuron -> Central nervous system -> Motor neuron -> Effector -> Response
22 of 43
List the pathway for a spinal reflex.
Receptor -> Sensory neurone -> Relay neurone -> Motor neurone -> Effector
23 of 43
How have neurones adapted?
Being long; having branched endings to pick up impulses; and having an insulated sheath
24 of 43
What happens at a synapse?
An impulse arrives triggering the release of a transmitter substance which diffuses across the synapse. The transmitter substance binds with the receptor molecule in the membrane of the next neurone.
25 of 43
Name 5 types of drugs
Depressant, painkiller, stimulant, performance enhancer, hallucinogen
26 of 43
Explain the effect on the cilia from cigarette smoke.
The smoke contains chemical which stop the cilia (tiny hairs found in the lining of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles) moving and the mucus isn't moved so the smoker coughs
27 of 43
What is the cirrhosis of the liver?
When the liver gets damaged when breaking down toxic chemicals e.g. alcohol
28 of 43
Give a definition of homeostasis
Balancing bodily inputs and outputs using negative feedback.
29 of 43
What could a high temperature cause?
Heat stroke or dehydration or hypERthermia
30 of 43
How is over heating avoided in the body?
Sweating requires body heat to evaporate.
31 of 43
Which gland monitors blood temperature?
Hypothalamus gland in the brain
32 of 43
What are 'vasoconstriction' and 'vasodilation'?
Vasoconstriction - blood vessels get narrower when cold to avoid heat loss. Vasodilation - blood vessels get larger to increase heat transfer
33 of 43
What does insulin do?
Converts excess glucose into glycogen which is stored in the liver - regulating blood sugar levels
34 of 43
Phototropism is the plant's response to light, how does the shoots grow in relation?
35 of 43
Where are more auxins found in a plant?
Shady side of the plant so the plant will grow towards the light
36 of 43
Give some commercial uses of plant hormones
Weedkillers, rooting powder, fruit ripening, dormant seeds
37 of 43
What are alleles?
Different versions of the same gene
38 of 43
Are dominant or recessive alleles shown?
39 of 43
How many pairs of chromosones do humans have?
40 of 43
What is genetic variation caused by?
mutations, rearrangement, fertilisation
41 of 43
Give definitions of homozygous and heterozygous
Homozygous is identical alleles, heterozygous means different alleles
42 of 43
What could cause inherited disorders?
Faulty alleles
43 of 43

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Give a definition of fitness


Ability to do physical exercise. Measured by: strength, flexibility, stamina, agility, speed

Card 3


Give a definition of health


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What can cause high blood pressure?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why does carbon monoxide decrease the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Healthy living resources »