Biol unit 1 flashcards

  • Created by: Rachel
  • Created on: 24-04-13 18:31
Name the two types of transport proteins embedded in a phospholipid bilayer
Channel protein (charged molecules) Carrier protein (large molecules)
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What benefit does microvilli have on a cell?
Increases surface area.
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What process is used to separate organelles in a cell?
Cell fractionation.
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What properties do the organelles have that allow them to be separated?
Different masses and sizes.
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What 3 features are essential for the suspension?
It must be buffered, isotonic and cool.
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Give the order in which the organelles settle out.
1st nuclei. 2nd chloroplasts (if plant tissue). 3rd mitochondria and lysosomes. 4th ribosomes, golgi apparatus and membranes.
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What technique is used to separate the Golgi apparatus, ribosomes and membranes?
Density-gradient centrifugation.
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What is the name of a chewed ball of food and what is the name of the process of it being squeezed down the oesophagus?
Bolus. The process is peristalsis.
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Which enzyme in gastric juice begins the digestion of proteins?
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Why does salivary amylase stop working when in the stomach?
Because the acidity of the gastric juice denatures it.
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Where in the body does pancreatic amylase hydrolyse starch?
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Which enzyme completes the digestion of starch?
Maltase.It catalyses the hydrolysis of maltose into a-glucose molecules.
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What are enzymes?
They are molecules that catalyse the biochemical reactions that take place inside and outside of cells.
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What is a catalyst?
A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being changed itself.
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What is activation energy?
It is the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction.
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Describe the lock and key model.
The shape of the active site of the enzyme and the substrate are complimentary.
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Describe the induced fit model.
The binding of the substrate to the active site requires a conformational change. This puts the substrate molecules under tension meaning they enter transition state and react.
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What four factors affect enzyme activity?
pH, temperature, substrate concentration and presence of inhibitors.
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What is the name of the model concerning membranes?
The fluid mosaic model.
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Why cant ions pass through the phospholipid bilayer?
Because of the negative hydrophobic tails.
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Why cant large molecules pass through the phospholipid bilayer? Why can SOME large molecules pass through?
The phospholipids are too tightly packed however some large molecules are lipid-soluble.
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What are the names of proteins used to actively transport substances across plasma membranes?
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Define osmosis.
It is the process of water molecules moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a partially permiable membrane.
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Mammals have a double circulatory system. Name them.
Pulmonary circulatory system (carries blood to lungs) and systemic circulatory system (carries blood to rest of body).
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How would you describe a chamber in the heart when it is contracting?
It is in systole.
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How would you describe a chamber in the heart when it is relaxing?
It in in diastole.
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What is the sinoatrial node commonly described as?
The natural pacemaker.
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Explain how the atria contract.
An electrical impulse is initiated by the SAN travelling across both atria at 100m per second.
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Why is there a delay before the ventricles contract? What cause this delay?
To ensure the atria have emptied. A non-conducting band of tissue causes this delay.
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Explain how the ventricles contract.
The wave of excitation reaches the AVN, travels down the purkyne tissue down the septum to the apex, and spreads upwards.
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What is the name for the output from each ventricle per minute?
Cardiac output.
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What is the equation for cardiac output?
cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate
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Explain what happens to the diaphragm when inhaling.
The diaphragm flattens and the ribs move up and out. The volume of thorax increases, pressure around lungs decrease, pressure in alveoli decreases.
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Explain what happens to the diaphragm when exhaling.
The diaphragm returns to dome shape and ribs move down and in. The volume of thorax decreases, pressure around lungs increases and pressure in alveoli increases.
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State 3 features for efficient gas exchange.
1. Large surface area 2. Large difference in concentration 3. Short diffusion distance
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What is the equation for pulmonary ventilation rate?
Pulmonary ventilation rate = tidal volume x rate of breathing
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What are monoclonal antibodies?
Antibodies produced from a single group of genetically identical B-cells.
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What is the formula for pulmonary ventilation?
tidal volume x breathing rate
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What is the formula for cardiac output?
stroke volume x heart rate
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What does tuberculosis affect?
Mainly lungs but kidneys central nervous system and bones and skin.
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How is TB spread?
Droplet infection.
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Briefly explained how TB develops.
Engulfed by macrophage until bursts. T-lymphocytes activate macrophage to destroy. If doesnt work, tubercles form. Centres liquefy and bacteria multiplies. Invade bronchus or artery.
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Symptoms of TB.
chest pain. coughing up blood. cough that lasts more than 3 weeks. night sweats.
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How is TB treated?
Four antibiotics.
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3 lifestyle factors that lead to disease.
Smoking, obesity and stress.
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What is atheroma?
Cholesterol or fatty substance.
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How does atheroma cause myocardial infarction?
Clings to wall of coronary artery, scratches the surface and leads to thrombosis. This stops glucose and oxygen reaching heart. Muscle cannot respire and therefore dies.
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What is embolus?
When blood clot becomes dislodged and travelled to another artery called Embolism.
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What is the process called when atheroma becomes lodged onto artery walls?
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When are cancers formed?
When cells divide uncontrollably and then form a clone which also divide in this fashion.
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What do malignant tumours do that benign do not?
Stimulate a blood supply to the tumour.
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How are the walls of the alveoli broken down in a person with emphysema?
Phagocytic white blood cells release the enzyme elastase which breaks down the protein elastin.
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What causes the bronchioles to become inflammed in a person with asthma?
Histamines released by white blood cells.
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What happens in an asthma attack?
Smooth muscle around bronchioles contracts narrowing lumen. Cells secrete mucus reducing flow of air further. Hard to breathe. Restricted airflow.
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What are the two main types of inhaler?
Relievers and Preventers.
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How do relievers work?
They cause the smooth muscle to relax during an asthma attack.
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How do Preventers work?
Release substances that reduce the inflammation of the bronchioles.
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How do bacteria cause disease?
Release toxins as they multiply.
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How do viruses cause disease?
Enter living cells and disrupt their metabolic system. Genetic material becomes incorporated in cell and instructs cell to make more.
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How do fungus cause disease?
Their hyphae secrete enzymes. Physically damages tissue. Also secrete toxins. Can cause allergic reaction.
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How does cholera affect epithelial cells?
Causes transport proteins in plasma membrane to be permanently open. Allows ions to flow out. Water follows by osmosis ultimately from blood and can cause death.
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List organelle order of spinning out in fractionation.
Nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria and lysosomes, ribosomes membranes and golgi.
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What is the cell wall made from in prokaryotes?
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Why is suspension buffered?
To keep pH constantly neutral to prevent damage to structure of proteins and enzymes.
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Why is suspension isotonic?
To stop osmotic water loss or gain by keeping equal water potential. Stops organelles shriveling or bursting.
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Why is suspension cool?
To reduce enzyme activity.
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How do you separate the ribosomes membranes and golgi?
Density-grandient centrifugation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What benefit does microvilli have on a cell?


Increases surface area.

Card 3


What process is used to separate organelles in a cell?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What properties do the organelles have that allow them to be separated?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What 3 features are essential for the suspension?


Preview of the front of card 5
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