Biology terminlogy

Non-living feature of an ecosystem
Abiotic factor
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An abiotic factor that is potentially damaging to a plant
Abiotic stress
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A plant hormone that can cause stomatal closure
Abscisic acid (ABA)
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A layer of cells at the bottom of the leaf stalk that break in the presence of ethene to cause leaf fall
Abscission layer
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The number of individuals of one species in a particular area
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A neurotransmitter that binds to cholinergic receptors
Acetylcholine (ACh)
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The thin myofilament protein in muscle fibres
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The bond formed when a myosin head binds to an actin filament
Actin-myosin cross bridge
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A transcription factor that starts transcription
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A molecule made of adenine, a ribose sugar, and two phosphate groups
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An endocrine gland that secretes hormones including adrenaline and noradrenaline
Adrenal gland
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A hormone secreted from the adrenal gland that increases blood glucose concentration
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The process where energy is released from glucose using oxygen
Aerobic respiration
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A type of anaerobic respiration used commercially
Alcoholic fermentation
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A chemical released by plants which may have a bitter taste to protect against herbivory
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One or more alternative versions of the same gene
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How often an allele is represented in the population
Allele frequency
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when populations become genetically isolated due to geography and natural selection
Allopatric speciation
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A type of cell found in the islet of langerhans that secretes glucagon
Alpha cell
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The process where nitrogen compounds are converted into ammonium ions by saprophytic organisms
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The process where energy is released from glucose without oxygen
Anaerobic respiration
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A hormone that regulates water potential
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
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When the top shoot grows more than the side shoots
Apical dominance
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Programmed cell death
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A technique for cloning animals involving separating embryos into multiple cells and implanting them into surrogates
Artificial embryo twinning
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Humans breeding particular animals for desirable traits
Artificial selection
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A technique to prevent contamination
Aseptic technique
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A molecule of adenine, a ribose sugar, and three phosphates
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An enzyme that catalyses the conversion of ATP into ADP and energy
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An enzyme that catalyses the conversion of ADP and a phosphate into ATP
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A nervous system pathway that controls the unconscious
Autonomic nervous system
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Alleles on the same chromosome are transferred to the same daughter cell and inherited together
Autosomal linkage
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A somatic chromosome
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A plant hormone that stimulates cell elongation
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A man-made plasmid used in gene technology
Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC)
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When one fermented culture ends and a new culture is grown
Batch fermentation
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A type of cell found in the islets of langerhans that secretes insulin
Beta cells
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Technolgy that can analyse, store, and organise biological data
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The total mass in a living organism
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A process that uses bacteria to remove pollutants like oil
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The industrial or commercial use of living organisms
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A living feature of an ecosystem
Biotic factor
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The general structure of an ecosystem
Body plan
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A hollow ball at the start of the nephron that contains the glomerulus
Bowmans capsule
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Light independent reaction alternative name
Calvin cycle
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The movement of carbon through the environment
Carbon cycle
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A person with a recessive allele in their genotype
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The maximum sustainable population in an area
Carrying capacity
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Nervous system pathway containing brain and spinal cord
Central nervous system (CNS)
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Part of the brain that plays a role in balance, muscle co-ordination, and posture
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The largest part of the brain involved in senses and consciousness
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A technique used to sequence DNA
Chain termination method
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The movement of protons across a membrane, generating ATP
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A statistical test that compares the observed data to the expected data
Chi squared test
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An important photosynthetic pigment with multiple types
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When a plant turns yellow due to lack of chlorophyll
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A synapse that uses ACh neurotransmitter
Cholinergic synapse
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The final ecosystem in a succession process
Climax community
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The process of producing genetically identical organisms
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A culture that is grown in an isolated environment
Closed culture
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An allele that is equally expressed with another allele
Codominant allele
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A molecule that aids enzyme function
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A coenzyme in respiration that transfers acetate
Coenzyme A (CoA)
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The level of limiting factor that causes the rate of photosynthesis to match respiration
Compensation point
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A dynamic process that involves the protection and management of ecosystems
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An organisms that eats other organisms
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Where organisms are continuously grown
Continuous fermentation
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A factor that is kept the same
Control variable
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When many neurones connect to a single neurone
Synaptic convergence
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A relationship between two factors
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A population of microorganisms grown in a controlled environment
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A section of plant that can be used to propogate new plants
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A molecule thaat activates intracellular proteins by altering the 3D structure
Cyclic AMP (cAMP)
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The process where amino groups are converted to ammonia and organic acids to remove excess nitrogen
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The removal of carbon dioxide from a molecule
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A plant that loses its leaves in winter
Deciduous plant
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The removal of hydrogen from a molecule
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The process of converting nitrates into into nitrogen gas by bacteria
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The factor being measured in an experiment
Dependent variable
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A decrease in the potential difference across a cell surface membrane to make it more positive than the resting potential
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The process of breaking harmful substances into less harmful substances for excretion
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A condition where the body does not produce insulin
Type 1 diabetes
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A condition where the body is resistant to or does not produce enough insulin
Type 2 diabetes
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The inheritance of two characteristics that are controlled by different genes
Dihybrid inheritance
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Evolutional changes from one extreme characteristic to another
Directional selection
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When an individual falls into distinct categories with no intermediates
Discontinuous variation
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The population across an area
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When one neurone connects to many neurones
Synaptic divergence
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An enzyme that joins the sticky ends of a DNA fragment
DNA ligase
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An enzyme that joins nucleotides on a new DNA strand during replication
DNA polymerase
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A set of characteristics unique to an individual
DNA profile
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A technique used to determine the order of bases in a DNA section
DNA sequencing
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An allele that is expressed with only one copy in the genotype
Dominant allele
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All the organisms and the abiotic conditions in a particular area
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An organism that controls body temperature through behaviour
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A cell that brings about a response to a stimulus to produce an effect
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A molecule that transfers electrons to another molecule
Electron carrier
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A chain of molecules through which excited electrons flow
Electron transport chain
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A technique to increase the permeability of plasma membranes using electric shocks
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An unspecialised cell from an unborn organism
Embryonic stem cell
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A group of cells that secrete hormones into the blood
Endocrine gland
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An organism that controls body temperature internally and behaviourally
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A cell without a nucleus
Enucleated cell
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the study of health and disease in a population
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When one allele masks the expression of another
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A plant hormone that stimulates fruit ripening and leaf loss
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When a plant grows unusually long due to lack of light
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The change in allele frequency over time causing changes in a species
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The removal of metabolic waste products
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The section of DNA that codes for amino acids
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A coenzyme involved in respiration that transfer hydrogen from one molecule to another
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A large container in which microorganisms are grown industrially
Fermentation vessel
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A response that prepares the body for action in response to a threat
Fight or flight response
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The effluent in the kidney tubules following ultrafiltration also known as tubular fluid
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The last molecule to accept an electron in an electron transport chain
Final electron acceptor
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An extracellular chemical involved in cell signalling that binds to a receptor and causes intracellular activity
First messenger
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The reduction in genetic diversity that occurs when few organisms in a population begin a new population
Founder effect
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A sex cell
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A technique that allows DNA fragments to be separated according to size
Gel electrophoresis
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A section of DNA that codes for a particular protein
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The complete range of alleles in a population
Gene pool
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The change in potential difference in a plasma membrane due to a stimulus
Generator potential
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Possible treatment for genetic disorders involving altering faulty alleles
Gene therapy
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An event that causes a large reduction in genetic diversity
Genetic bottleneck
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An inherited disorder caused by a faulty allele, gene, chromosome
Genetic disorder
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The process where an allele randomly becomes more frequent
Genetic drift
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The manipulation of an organisms DNA
Genetic engineering
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All the genetic material in an organism
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All the alleles present in an organism
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When a physical barrier divides a population and causes them to diverge genetically
Geographical isolation
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The growth of a plant in response to gravity
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A possible cure for genetic disorders by altering faulty alleles, genes, chromosomes, in gametes
Germ line gene therapy
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A plant hormone that stimulates seed germination, stem elongation, lateral bud formation, and flowering
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The rate at which blood is filtered into the bowmans capsule
Glomerular filtration rate
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A knot of capillaries inside the bowmans capsule where ultrafiltration takes placec
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A hormne secreted by the pancreas that increases blood glucose concentration
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The conversion of fatty acids to glucose due to glucagon
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The first stage of respiration
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The energy absorbed by an organism
Gross productivity
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The first stage of respiration
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The energy absorbed by an organism
Gross productivity
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The place where an organism lives
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When a cell contains one copy of each chromosome
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A mathematical model that predicts allele frequency
Hardy-Weinberg principal
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When plants are predated
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An organim containing different alleles for the same characteristic
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A monosaccharide with six carbon atoms
Hexose sugar
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DNA sequencing techniques that can sequence much faster than traditional methods
High-throughput sequencing
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A sequence in a homeotic gene that codes for the homeodomain
Homeobox sequence
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Part of the protein that binds to DNA so it can act as a transcription factor
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The maintenance of a constant internal environment
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an organism carrying the multiple copies of the same allele
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A chemical messenger secreted from an endocrine gland
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A cell that is used to carry recombinant DNA
Host cell
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Genes that code for proteins that control the body plan development
Hox genes
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A hormone that is only found in the urine of pregnant women
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
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The splitting of a molecule using water
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An increase in the plasma membrane potential difference, making it more negative than the resting potential
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Part of the brain that controls body temperature and water potential
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A testable statement based on a theory
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An enzyme attached to an insoluble material
Immobilised enzyme
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The factor of an experiment being changed
Independent variable
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An auxin produced in the tips and shoots of flowering plants
Indoleacetic acid
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A hormone secreted by the pancreas to lower blood glucose concentration
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Competition between different species for the same resources
Interspecific competition
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Competition between individuals of a species for resources
Intraspecific competition
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DNA that does not code for anything, also known as junk DNA
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An area of endocrine tissue in the pancreas containing alpha and beta cells
Islet of Langerhans
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An enzyme not contained withing the organisms cells
Isolated enzyme
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A series of oxidation reduced reactions during respiration
Krebs cycle
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An operon containing genes necessary to respire lactose in E.coli
Lac operon
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A type of anaerobic respiration that produces lactate
Lactate fermentation
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The first stage of photosynthesis where light energy is absorbed and converted to ATP and reduced NADP
Light dependent reaction
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A complex of proteins that transfers light energy to boost the energy available for electron excitation
Light harvesting system
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the second stage of photosynthesis where ATP and reduced NADP are used to convert glucose from carbon dioxide
Light independent reaction
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A variable that slows the rate of a process (i.e photosynthesis)
Limiting factor
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A stage of respiration where pyruvate is converted into acetyl coenzyme A
Link reaction
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The position of a gene on the chromosome
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Part of the nephron responsible for establishing a water potential gradient
Loop of Henle
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mRNA without the intron
Mature mRNA
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Part of the brain that controls breathing and heart rates
Medulla oblongata
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All the biochemical reactions that occur in an organism that are essential for life
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A technique where tissue cultures are used to produce many plant clones very quickly
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An organelle that is the site of respiration
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A characteristic influenced by a single gene
Monogenic characteristic
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The inheritance of a single gene influenced by multiple alleles
Monogenic inheritance
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Any change in the DNA base sequence
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The insulative layer around a neurone that speeds conduction of impulses
Myelin sheath
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A long cylindrical organelle in muscle cells specialised for contraction
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The protein that makes up the myofilaments of myofibrils
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Coenzyme produced during glycolysis that transfers hydrogen
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The process where an allele becomes more frequent due to selection pressures
Natural selection
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A change that causes another change which reduces the original change to maintain a stable environment
Negative feedback mechanism
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The filtering units of the kidney responsible for removing urea from the blood
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The energy available from one trophic level to the next
Net productivity
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A specialised cholinergic synapse between a motor neurone and a muscle cell
Neuromuscular junction
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A chemical that transmits a nerve impulse
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The process by which ammonium ions are converted to nitrites and then nitrates by bacteria
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The movement of nitrogen through the environment
Nitrogen cycle
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The process where nitrogen gas is converted to ammonia by bacteria
Nitrogen fixation
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An immature egg cell
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A DNA sequence that transcription factors bind to
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A section of DNA that regulates other genes responsible for protein synthesis
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A series of reactions that converts ammonia and carbon dioxide to urea and water
Ornithine cycle
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A cell that monitors blood water potential
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A chemical reaction where the molecule loses electrons and gained oxygen
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The final stage of respiration where energy carried by electrons on reduced coenzymes is used to make atp
Oxidative phosphorylation
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A type of mechanoreceptor found in the finger tips
Pacinian corpuscle
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A sequence of DNA bases that is read the same fowards as it is backwards
Palindromic sequence
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The nervous pathway that prepares the body for sleep, also known as the rest and digest pathway
Parasympathetic nervous system
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A technique used to make millions of copies of a DNA fragment very quickly
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
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A nervous pathway that connects the body to the CNS
Peripheral nervous system
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Producing medicines from genetically modified organisms
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The organisms expressed alleles
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The ratio of possible phenotypes in an offspring
Phenotypic ratio
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A signalling chemical released by an organism to produce a response in other organisms
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The process of adding a phosphate to a molecule using light energy
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The splitting of a molecule using light energy
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The process of adding a phosphate to a molecule
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The process of using light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose
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A coloured substance that absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
Photosynthetic pigment
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A protein and photosynthetic pigment structure found in the thylakoid membrane
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The growth of a plant in response to light
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The first speces to colonise an area in succession
Pioneer species
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A gland in the brain that stimulates other glands to release hormones
Pituitary gland
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When a succession is halted by human activities
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A chemical that affects the rate of plant growth
Plant growth hormone
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A characteristic influenced by multiple genes
Polygenic characteristic
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All the individuals of a single species in an area
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A change that causes another change which increases the original change
Positive feedback mechanism
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The voltage across a plasma membrane
Potential difference
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When an organism kills and eats another
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The protection of an ecosystem so it remains exactly as is
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mRNA containing both intron and exon
Primary mRNA
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Succession that occurs from land without soil
Primary succession
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A short piece of single stranded DNA that is complementary to the starting bases of a desired DNA fragment
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How likely an event is to occur
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An organism that produces organic molecules, usually through photosynthesis
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A DNA sequence that RNA binds to
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The study of evolutionary history of organisms
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A site where electrons are excited during the light dependent reaction
Reaction centre
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A cell or protein on the plasma membrane that detects a stimulus
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An allele that is only expressed when there are two copies
Recessive allele
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A specific palindromic sequence in DNA recognised by a restriction enzyme
Recognition sequence
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DNA formed by combining DNA from multiple sources
Recombinant DNA
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A chemical reaction involving oxidation and reduction
Redox reaction
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A chemical reaction where a molecule gains an electron and loses an oxygen
Reduction reaction
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An automatic nervous response to a stimulus
Reflex action
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A gene that codes for transcription factors
Regulatory gene
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The return of a cell to resting potential
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A transcription factor that stops transcription
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When two populations of the same species are unable to produce fertile offspring
Reproductive isolation
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The energy lost to the environment when organisms use energy produced via respiration
Respiratory loss
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The volume of carbon dioxide evolved divided by the oxygen consumed in a period of time
Respiratory quotient
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Any biological molecule that can be broken down in respiration to release energy
Respiratory substrate
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A device that can be used to measure the rate of oxygen uptake to learn the rate of respiration
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The potential difference of a cell at rest
Resting potential
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Enzymes that recognise specific recognition sequences and cut the DNA at these sequences
Restriction endonuclease
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An enzyme that catalyses the transcription of DNA from RNA
Reverse transcriptase
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The distance a substance moves relative to the solvent in thin layer chromatography
Rf value
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An enzyme that catalyses the formation of glycerate 3 phosphate from carbon dioxide and ribulose biphosphate during photosynthesis
Ribulose biphosphate carboxylase (rubisco)
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The process in myelinated neurones where a nervous impulse travels to the nodes of ranvier
Saltatory conduction
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The process of feeding on dead organic matter by decomposers
Saprobiotic nutrition
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A short contractile unit made of overlapping myosin and actin filaments
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The point at which a particular factor no longer limits the rate of reaction
Saturation point
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The cells that make up the myelin sheath
Schwann cells
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Succession that occurs where the soil is already established
Secondary succession
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An intracellular chemical that is produced in response to the first messenger
Second messenger
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Anyhting that affects an organisms chance of survival and reproduction
Selection pressure
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The reabsorption of useful substances from the nephron into the blood
Selective reabsorption
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When the allele that codes for a characteristic is located on the sex chromosome
Sex linked characteristic
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When myosin and actin filaments slide over one another to make sarcomeres contract
Sliding filament model
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Any cell in a multicellular organism that is not a sex cell
Somatic cell
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Cloning technique where a nucleus from a somatic cell is inserted into an enucleated cell
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
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Potential treatment for genetic disorders in somatic cells
Somatic gene therapy
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A pathway of the peripheral nervous system that controls conscious activities
Somatic nervous system
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When two or more neurones release neurtransmitters into the same postsynaptic neurone at the same time, multiplying the effect
Spatial summation
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The development of a new species
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A group of similar organisms that can breed to produce fertile offspring
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Individuals with alleles for characteristics with intermediate ranges so that offspring are most likely to survive
Stabilising selection
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A curve with four phases showing the growth of a culture
Standard microorganism growth curve
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An unspecialised cell that can differentiate into a specialised cell
Stem cell
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A small tail of unpaired DNA bases at the end of a cut DNA fragment
Sticky end
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A change in the internal or external environment of an organism
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A gene that codes for a useful protein
Structural gene
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When a phosphate group is directly transferred from one organism to another
Substrate level phosphorylation
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The process by which an ecosystem changes over time
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A division of the autonomic nervous pathway which readies the body for action
Sympathetic nervous system
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When a new species develops without geographical isolation
Sympatric speciation
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A gap between a neurone and another neurone or between a neurone and an effector cell
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Building biological systems from artificially made molecules, redesigning biological systems for better performance, and designing new biological systems or molecules that do not naturally exist
Synthetic biology
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A bitter tasting chemical to protect against herbvory
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A cell (or tissue) that has specific receptors for particular chemicals
Target cell
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The sharing of knowledge, skills, and technlogy
Technology transfer
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when one neurone is stimulated multiple times to release more neurotransmitter into the postsynaptic membrane
Temporal summation
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The minimum level a generator potential needs for an action potential to fire
Threshold level
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Plant cloning technique which uses stem cells or root tip cells and growing them in a culture
Plant tissue culture
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A protein that binds to DNA and switches genes on or off by altering the rate of transcription
Transcription factor
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Something that converts energy from one form to another
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A line used to help measure change across distance
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A host cell that has taken up recombinant DNA
Transformed cell
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An organism that has had its genes altered by genetic engineering
Transformed organism
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An organism that has been genetically engineered to include a gene from another species
Transgenic organism
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A stage in a food chain thats occupied by a particular group of organisms
Trophic level
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Plant directional response
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The filtration of blood under high pressure
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A factor with the potential to change
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Constriction of a blood vessel
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Dilation of a blood vessel
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Something used to transfer DNA into a cell
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The natural production of plant clones from non reproductive tissues
Vegetative propogation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


An abiotic factor that is potentially damaging to a plant


Abiotic stress

Card 3


A plant hormone that can cause stomatal closure


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


A layer of cells at the bottom of the leaf stalk that break in the presence of ethene to cause leaf fall


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


The number of individuals of one species in a particular area


Preview of the front of card 5
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