biology tommy fluffy

  • Created by: Amy-C
  • Created on: 09-02-20 17:09
What are antibiotics for
Antibiotics are used to cure BACTERIAL diseases by killing infective bacteria inside the body
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What are painkillers used for
Painkillers are used to relieve symptoms of disease but they dont kill the pathogens
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Where do most painkillers come from
Most painkillers come from plants
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How do antibiotics work
antibiotics work by killing the bacteria thta cause disease while they are isnide your body. They damage bacteria but not your own cells. Many harmfull diseases can be killed using antibiotics.
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What happens during a drug trial
1) Reasearchers target A disease and makes possible drugs. 2) Theyre tested on cells or tissues (many fail) 3) Drugs that pass are tested on animals. 4) Drugs undergo clinical trials 5) Small doeses are given. 6) larger doses given to find right dose
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What is considered when researching new medicines
Is it toxic? Is it safe for animals? Is it safe for humans?
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what are placebos
placebos are when the person taking the drug doesnt know if its the real drug or a fake one
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Clinical trials with placebos
Blind Trals: Patients do not know which drugs they are taking, real or placebo...
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Double blind trials (placebos)
...Neither the doctors or patients know if they are taking the real drug
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Publishing results...
The results of a drug tests and trials are published in journals after they have been through a very harsh process. This means that other scientists can make it and make sure there are no false claims and so scientists can share their knowledge.
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What are monoclonal antibiodies
Monoclonal antibodies are basically "identical antibodies" that can be amde to bind to a specific cell or chemical. These are the same because they are from the same 'parent cell'.
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what is a hybridoma
A cell that produces lots of antibodies.
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How to make monoclonal antibodies...
1) Take animal (MOUSE) and inject it with antigen. 2) Extract the B-lymphocytes from mouse made in the antigen reaction. 3)Fuse lymphocyte to fast growing tumour cells to make a hybridoma. 4) The hybridoma divides quick giving monoclonal antibodoies.
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What are antigens
Antigens are protein moledcules that are often found on the surface of cells
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What are monoclonal antibodies used for??
Testing levels of hormones and other chemicals, pregnancy testing , Treating cancer by targeting specific cells, locating and identifying specific molecules in a cell or tissue and bunding them with a fluorescent dye
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Why are monoclonal antibodies good for fighting cancers
Radiotherapy and chemotherapy have adverse side affects. Monoclonal antibodies are useful as they are specific.
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How to use monoclonal antibodies to treat cancer
1) Produce monoclonal antibodies that are specific. 2) Inject the antibodies in the blood 3) Antibodies bind to cancer cells and tag them for attack by white blood cells. 4) The antibodies can also be attacked by a radioactive or toxic subastance
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Pros of monoclonal antibodies
cancer treatment, Target specific cells, less side effects
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Cons of monoclonal antibodies
Can still cause side effects such as vomiting, fever and low blood pressure, currently not as wideley used as scientists first hoped.
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Measuring and monitoring using monoclonal antibodies
Monoclonal antibodies can be used to measure levels of hormones and other chemicals.
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Card 2


What are painkillers used for


Painkillers are used to relieve symptoms of disease but they dont kill the pathogens

Card 3


Where do most painkillers come from


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Card 4


How do antibiotics work


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Card 5


What happens during a drug trial


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