Biology: The Components of Life Key Words

  • Created by: faholly21
  • Created on: 29-05-15 10:59
Active Site
A region on the enzyme that binds to a protein or other substrate during a reaction
1 of 182
Active Transport
Movement of molecules into the cell using energy from respiration. Allows a high concentration inside a cell.
2 of 182
Base in DNA that pairs with Thymine (Uracil during protein synthesis)
3 of 182
Adult stem cell
A stem cell found in differentiated tissue that can specialise into a few types of cell
4 of 182
Aerobic respiration
Respiration that uses oxygen
5 of 182
Alimentary Canal
Muscular tube that runs from mouth to anus which is a part of the digestion system
6 of 182
Different variations of genes e.g eye colour
7 of 182
Carbohydrase enzyme which breaks down starch to sugars.
8 of 182
Amino Acids
small molecule that is the building block of proteins.
9 of 182
Anaerobic respiration
Respiration that breaks down glucouse without oxygen
10 of 182
Proteins that bind to micro-organisms that cause disease and destroy them.
11 of 182
The major artery leading away from the heart
12 of 182
Vessels that transport blood away from the heart.
13 of 182
Asexual respiration
Formation of a new individual without fertilisation,using the process of mitosis to create identical offspring.
14 of 182
The chemicals which link together the two strands of molecule in DNA (adenine, thymine,cytosine and guanine)
15 of 182
Complementary Base Pair
Bases which always pair up the same way because of the complementary shape of the molecules.
16 of 182
Base Triplet (or Codon)
Group of 3 bases which codes for a particular amino acid.
17 of 182
Substances in the human diet from which the body makes Vitamin A
18 of 182
Example of probiotic bacteria
19 of 182
Alkaline substance made by the gall bladder which emulsifies fats
20 of 182
Bile Duct
Tube that connects the gall bladder to the small intestine
21 of 182
The variety of species present within a given area
22 of 182
Ball shaped mass of chewed food
23 of 182
Blood vessels
Tube that contains the blood as it flows around the body
24 of 182
Tiny blood vessels w/ thin walls to allow diffusion of substances in and out of the blood.
25 of 182
Enzymes which catalyse the breakdown of carbohydrates
26 of 182
Cardiac Output
Volume of blood heart can pump in a min (CO=stroke volume x heart rate )
27 of 182
Substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction w/o being used up
28 of 182
Cell membrane
Thin layer (forms semi permeable barrier) around the cytoplasm of the cell. Controls movements in and out of the cell.
29 of 182
Basic units of life in which many chemical reactions needed to sustain life take place
30 of 182
Cell walls are made of tough cellulose which support the cell and allow it to keep its shape
31 of 182
Cell Wall
Relatively rigid structure that surround plant/ bacterial cells- supports the cell and helps it keep its shape.
32 of 182
Green substance in chloroplasts that absorbs energy from sunlight.
33 of 182
Organelle in plant cells that contains chlorophyll and is where photosynthesis takes place.
34 of 182
Fat made in the liver and carried around in blood. High levels associated with heart disease
35 of 182
Chromosomal DNA
The DNA which makes up the chromosomes of a cell
36 of 182
Thread like structures found in the nucleus of the cell which carry genetic info.
37 of 182
Circulatory System
Organ system involving the heart and blood vessels which oxygenates blood
38 of 182
Individual created by a form of asexual reproduction which is genetically identical to its parent
39 of 182
Concentration Gradient
Where a solute is an gradually increasing concentration from refion to another
40 of 182
Liquid gel which makes up a lot of the body of a cell and is where many chemical reactions take place
41 of 182
Base which pairs up with guanine
42 of 182
Daughter Cell
Cell produced from division of a parent cell
43 of 182
To break down/ change shape e.g enzymes denature when they are in a unsuitable pH
44 of 182
Without oxygen
45 of 182
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
makes up genes and chromosones- instructions for a cells growth and activity
46 of 182
Specialise, develop into different kinds. ( Stem Cells)
47 of 182
Process where a less specialised cell becomes more specialised for a particular function.
48 of 182
The random movement and spreading of particles . With concentration gradient- overall diffusion of particles from high concentration to a region of a lower concentration.
49 of 182
Breakdown of large food insoluble molecules into small soluble food molecules
50 of 182
Digestive System
System of Organs which digests food around the body
51 of 182
cell w/ two sets of chromosomes. Almost all cells apart from sperm and egg cells are this.
52 of 182
places in which a certain organism can be found in an area.
53 of 182
DNA replication
Chromosomes are copied before cell division occurs
54 of 182
Double Helix
Spiral structure of DNA
55 of 182
Area where organisms and physical features form a stable relationship
56 of 182
Getting longer
57 of 182
Balls of cells produced by cell division of the zygote- very early development of new individual
58 of 182
Embryonic Stem Cell
cell from an early stage of division of an embryo that can produce almost any kind of differentiated cell
59 of 182
Turns into a emulsion, mixture which particles of one liquid are suspended in another liquid
60 of 182
Remove a nucleus from a cell
61 of 182
An organism's surroundings
62 of 182
Protein molecule which sppeds up the rate of a reaction
63 of 182
Development of a new species over time through a process of natural selection
64 of 182
Periods of time after exercise which a greater than usual amount of oxygen is needed by the body for various processes including removal of lactic acid.
65 of 182
Undigested, waste material
66 of 182
Chemicals that are used to store energy in organisms
67 of 182
Fatty acid
Part of the structure of a fat or an oil
68 of 182
When two gametes fuse
69 of 182
Whip like protein bodies found on outside of bacteria cells which can be used for movement
70 of 182
Preserved traces or remains of an organism which lived a very long time ago
71 of 182
Fossil Record
Collection of fossils identified from different periods of time that can be interpreted to evidence of evolution.
72 of 182
Functional Food
Foods that are eaten which claim to make you healthier.
73 of 182
Gall bladder
organ that stores bile made by the liver and releases to the small intestine
74 of 182
Sex cell produced in reproductive organs by meiosis.
75 of 182
Gas Exchange
Process in the lungs which oxygen diffuses from the lungs into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the lungs.
76 of 182
Section of DNA which codes for a specific protein
77 of 182
Genetic Code
Code produced by a sequence of bases in genetic material
78 of 182
Genetic Engineering
Process of removing a gene from one organism and inserting it into the the DNA in a cell from another organism
79 of 182
organism that has had a gene from another species introduced
80 of 182
All of the genetic information of an organism
81 of 182
Giant Molecular Covalent Substance
Substance containing millions of atoms all held together by covalent bonds.
82 of 182
Golden Rice
Genetically engineered rice which produces beta-carotene in the rice grains turning them a golden yellow colour
83 of 182
Simple sugar that is broken down in cells to release energy during respiration . It is also produced during photosynthesis.
84 of 182
Part of the structure of fat or oil
85 of 182
Increase in size, length and mass, as well as an increase in cell number.
86 of 182
Base that pairs with cytosine
87 of 182
Place where an organism lives
88 of 182
Red iron-containing pigment found in red blood cells
89 of 182
One set of Chromosomes- gametes.
90 of 182
Chemical which kills plants
91 of 182
Human Genome Project
Project to sequence all of the base pairs of the human genome involving scientists from many different scientists from different countries working together.
92 of 182
In reproduction, placing an embryo in the uterus of a female animal to develop
93 of 182
Lactic Acid
Waste product of anaerobic respiration in animal cells
94 of 182
Example of probiotic bacteria
95 of 182
Large intestine
Organ that absorbs water from the digested material
96 of 182
Left atrium
One of the four chambers of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary vein
97 of 182
Left ventricle
One of the four chambers of the hear that receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it to the aorta
98 of 182
Light Microscope
Instrument which magnifies specimens using light and lenses
99 of 182
Limiting Factor
Single factor when in short supply can limit the rate of a process e.g photosynthesis
100 of 182
Enzyme that digests fats into fatty acid and glycerol
101 of 182
Organ that has a range of function including the secretion of bile
102 of 182
Lock and key hypothesis
Describes the relationship of a substrate and the active site of an enzyme to help explain how enzymes work.
103 of 182
Division of parent cell that produces genetically different haploid cells
104 of 182
molecule formed during DNA transcription that carries the code from the chromosome to a ribsome
105 of 182
Mitochondrion (plural of mitochondria)
Site of cellular respiration where glucose is broken down using oxygen to release energy which is needed for reactions in the cell
106 of 182
Division of parent cell that produces two genetically identical diploid cells.
107 of 182
Changes in the sequence of bases in DNA
108 of 182
Contains DNA for making new cells and organisms and also controls reactions in cells
109 of 182
Muscular tube between mouth and stomach
110 of 182
Type of carbohydrate which is a common prebioitic
111 of 182
Group of different tissues working together to do a particular function
112 of 182
Tiny structures that carry out specific jobs, e.g nucleus and mitochondria
113 of 182
Organ system
Group of organs working together to carry out a particular function in the body
114 of 182
Compound formed when haemoglobin combines w/ oxygen.( to carry oxygen around the body)
115 of 182
Organ that makes digestive enzymes and secretes them in to the first part of the small intestine.
116 of 182
Parent Cell
Cell that divides to produce daughter cells
117 of 182
Partially permeable membrane
Thin sheet of material that will allow certain small molecules to diffuse through but not larger ones.
118 of 182
Peer review
When a scientist who has similar backgrounds and experience checks someone else's work
119 of 182
Five fingered
120 of 182
Value of variable below which a certain percentage of observations fall e.g 20th indicates that 20% of the values are the same or below this value.
121 of 182
Waves of muscular contraction that move food along the alimentary canal.
122 of 182
Living tissue that transports sugars around the plant
123 of 182
Series of enzymes-catalysed reactions carried out in green parts of plants. CO2 and H20 combine to glucose and oxygen.
124 of 182
Pitfall Trap
Trap used to capture small animals that move on the ground
125 of 182
Plant stanol esters
Oily substances found in plants that appear to lower cholesterol levels in the blood
126 of 182
Liquid component of blood that carries all the suspended cells and dissolved substances.
127 of 182
Plasmid DNA
extra circles of DNA in bacterial cells
128 of 182
Cell fragments that help blood clot
129 of 182
Chain of amino acids that will form part of a protein
130 of 182
Pond Net
Net used to collect aquatic organisms in water ecosystems.
131 of 182
Simple device used to collect small invertebrates (breath in tube )
132 of 182
Population size
No of individuals of a species in an area
133 of 182
Substances that cannot be digested by human enzymes but act as food to bacteria in the gut
134 of 182
Foods containing live bacteria that produce lactic acid in the gut and claim to improve health of digestive system
135 of 182
Enzyme that digests proteins to amino acids
136 of 182
Protein synthesis
Building up of a protein molecule by joining together amino acids
137 of 182
Pulmonary artery
Arteries that carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
138 of 182
Pulmonary Vein
Veins that carry oxygenated blood from lungs to the left atrium
139 of 182
A square frame of a known area such as 1m^2 placed on the ground to get a sample of the organisms living in the area
140 of 182
Random Sampling
Method of sampling where the locations are selected randomly
141 of 182
Red Blood Cells
Biconcave discs containing haemoglobin that give the blood its red colour and carry O2 around the body to the tissues
142 of 182
Representative Sample
A sample that has approx the same characteristics as those of the whole study area v
143 of 182
Series of reactions occuring in all living cells in which glucose is broken down to release energy
144 of 182
Small structure in the cytoplasm of a cell where mRNA is translated to an amino acid chain
145 of 182
Right atrium
Receives blood from the vena cava
146 of 182
Right Ventricle
Receives blood from the right atrium and pumps into the pulmonary artery
147 of 182
Root Hair Cells
Found near tips of roots w/ thin extensions. Water enters through osmosis . Long thin extension gives bigger surface area
148 of 182
Lubricates food and makes it easier to swallow, also contains amylase which begins digestion of carbohydrate
149 of 182
Looking at a smaller proportion of an area/population
150 of 182
Thin membrane that separates the two sides of the heart
151 of 182
Sexual reproduction
Formation of a new individual from the fertalisation of a female g by a male gamete. Genetically diff from parents
152 of 182
Small intestine
Organ where digestion is completed and nutrients are absorbed
153 of 182
Carbohydrate made by joining together thousands of glucose molecules
154 of 182
Stem Cell
Unspecialised cell that can divide to produce more stem cells or different types of specialised cells
155 of 182
Organ that makes acid and some enzymes
156 of 182
Stomata (sing. Stoma)
Tiny pore in the lower surface of a lead which when open, allows gases to diffuse into and out of the leaf.
157 of 182
Stroke Volume
Volume of blood the heart can pump out with each beat
158 of 182
Substance that is changed by an enzyme in a chemical reaction
159 of 182
Groups of compounds formed from carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
160 of 182
surface area to volume ratio
Total amount of surface area of an object divide by its volume.
161 of 182
Surrogate mother
A female who is not related to the embryo implanted in her uterus
162 of 182
Sweep net
Net used to collect insects from long grass or canopy of a tree
163 of 182
Systematic Sampling
A method of sampling where the samples are selected from the population at regular intervals.
164 of 182
Base that pairs Adenine
165 of 182
Group of specialised cells that carry out the same function
166 of 182
Strand of mRNA is produced by complementary pairing of bases with one strand of DNA in the nucleas
167 of 182
small RNA molecule that transfers the correct amino acid to the ribosome during translation so the protein it codes for can be synthesised
168 of 182
Transferring the code in mRNA sequence into a sequence of amino acids on a ribosome
169 of 182
Evaporation of water vapour from the surface of a plant
170 of 182
Base only found in RNA and which replaces thymine
171 of 182
The Womb
172 of 182
Membrane bound space in cytoplasm filled w/ cell sap (store of water and nutrients). Keeps plant cell rigid.
173 of 182
Confirm a scientific theory is true
174 of 182
Flap of tissues in the heart to stop the blood flowing backwards
175 of 182
Vessels that transport blood back to the heart
176 of 182
Vena Cava
Major vein leading to heart
177 of 182
Fingerlike folds of the lining of the small intestine which greatly increases the surface area for the absorption/ diffusion of digested food products in the blood.
178 of 182
Visking tubing
Synthetic membrane which is partially permeable- small molecules can pass through but not larger molecules
179 of 182
White blood cells
Several different types of cells that defend against disease in the blood
180 of 182
Tissue made of dead hollow cells that transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to other parts of the plant
181 of 182
Fertilised Egg
182 of 182

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Movement of molecules into the cell using energy from respiration. Allows a high concentration inside a cell.


Active Transport

Card 3


Base in DNA that pairs with Thymine (Uracil during protein synthesis)


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


A stem cell found in differentiated tissue that can specialise into a few types of cell


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Respiration that uses oxygen


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards




too long but good

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all All resources »