• Created by: Lily._.c
  • Created on: 26-10-21 15:09
Divisions of the nervous system
CNS - brain and spinal cord
Peripheral NS- motor (—> somatic and autonomic(autonomic —> sympathetic and parasympathetic ) and sensory
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Somatic and autonomic
Somatic- controls voluntary movement
Autonomic- controls involuntary movement
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Sympathetic and parasympathetic
Sympathetic- fight or flight ^heart rate, breathing,muscle tension,pupils decreas in saliva and digestion.
Parasympathetic- rest or digest
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Synaptic transmission
1. Action potential arrives at end brush
2.causes the vesicles full of NT to migrate to the presynaptic membrane
3.vesicles releases NT into synaptic cleft
4. NT diffuses across cleft
5. NT binds to receptor site
6.if enough this triggers action potential
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Excitation and inhibition
Exc-(dopamine) more likely to cross threshold as changes requirements. Depolarisation of post synaptic membrane
Inhibition- (Serotonin) less likely to cross threshold, changes it and hyperpolarisation of PSM
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parts of a neuron
dendrite, cell body, nucleus, axon, myelin sheath, node of Ranvier(gaps), end brush
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types of neurons and identification
sensory- long and cell body on side not near dendrites.
relay-short axon and no myelin sheath
motor- long and thinnish, goes to muscle/effector
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endocrine system (slow? fast?)
slow- hormones, widespread and powerful blood stream
fast-adrenaline, immediate effects when threat detected. adrenaline is a stress hormone released from adrenal medulla into blood stream, triggers sympathetic reactions/fight or flight
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stressful event
-hypothalamus triggers the pituitary gland which triggers activity in the sympathetic branch of ANS
- the ANS changes from resting state (parasympathetic) to sympathetic
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sympathetic and parasympathetic symptoms
s- increased heart rate, breathing, pupils dilate, inhibits digestion and saliva production, contracts rectum, liver stimulates glucose production
p- decrease heart rate, breathing, constrict pupils, digestion and saliva, relaxes rectum
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full response to a stressful situation
-fight flight triggered --> Amygdala sends message to hypothalamus-->sympathomedullary pathway (SAM) --> ACUTE: sympathetic ns, stimulates endocrine s, adrenal medulla, adrenaline, instant and f/f easier, longer to break down, back to parasympathetic
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eval of fight or flight
- sex difference, men f/f less oxytocin.
women tend or befriend, more oxytocin= beta bias as assume all like men
+Von Dawans pos aspects -> bonds between soldiers
-negative consequences on immune system (HPA) and contributor to illnesses like heart dise
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Brain lobes and functions
frontal- at front, higher order functions like thinking
parietal- at top, senses and movement
occipital- back, visual area
temporal- side/bottom, auditory and memory
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brain areas and functions
motor area- in frontal lobe, contralateral and in charge of movement
somatosensory area- contralateral, senses
visual- occipital, seeing and interpreting
Brocas- frontal, language production
wernickes- temporal, language comprehension
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the theory that each specific brain function is located in a specific area within the brain, for example Broca's area in the lower frontal lobe
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holistic theory
in the 18th century they believed that all parts of the brain were involved in all functions. before that they believed the heart was actually in charge of what we think to be the brains functions.
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Phineas gage
-1848 man working on railroad, and hit gunpowder which exploded and forced his rod into his face, through his cheekbone and up skull.
-limbic system damaged. control centre, caused him to have a lack of inhibition and become aggressive.
-infer limbic syst
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Phineas gage AO3
-all retrospective info and not line up
- correlational
-case study
+ drove further study
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other famous research
-Broca and tan
-Wernicke, group can produce language but not comprehend-->post mortems
-Peterson, confirms Broca and Wernicke
-Tulving, memories have locations
-Penfield, lab, and electrodes see areas
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against localization
Karl Lashley - basic functions may have a location however higher-order functions aren't and may change over time due to plasticity.
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brain plasticity
the brain's ability to change and adapt because of experience (or injury). research suggests the brain will continue to develop and create new pathways and alter existing ones in response to injury. even in old age but is easier in younger ages and in wom
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evidence for plasticity
Maguire et al 2000- 16 r handed male taxi drives, do a knowledge test of locations better than non-taxi drivers at navigating as had larger posterior hippocampus and grey matter. has structural change
-correlational +causational study done after
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functional recovery
after an injury, the brain will adapt and compensate for and lost functions/areas. type of plasticity. neural unmasking- dormant synapses woken up to compensate. quickly after trauma. needs 3 things=1. axonal sprouting- new nerve endings new paths 2. refo
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evidence for functional recovery
Sarah Scott
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eval of plasticity and functional recovery
+ applications. neurorehabilitation (mvt therapy and electrical stim to brain) Sarah Scott
-not always positive. marijuana medina poorer cognitive function
+supporting evidence from animal studies, Hubel and Weisel, kitten eye sewn shut, eye continued to
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hemispheric lateralization
left hand and lvf- right hemisphere- spacial and drawing

rh and rvf-left hemisphere- language
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Sperry - split-brain research
quasi expt, cant randomly allocate to condition.
11ppts with epilepsy, all RH
asked them to stare at a point and image shown for 1/2 second so can't move head- tachistoscope
-describe what you see (can say when in rvf)
-recognition by touch
-composite wor
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Sperry eval
-low pop val
+support for lateralisation
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lateralisation eval
+high control ( 100% sure what we find is due to what we cause)
+ evidence support Sperry
- low pop val and not generalisable
+ nomothetic/ applications (Rodgers chickens-can multitask and eat and watch for predators
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functional magnetic resonance imaging- fMRI
measures brain activity by detecting blood flow changes as the more an are ais used the more oxygen is needed so blood flow will increase
+not invasive
+high spatial resolution
+no radiation
-poor temporal resolution
- expensive
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electroencephalogram (EEG)
tracks and records brain wave patterns, electrodes on the scalp, pick up signals and send them to computer, useful for seizures and memory problem.
+high temporal resolution
+painless and easy and comfy
+low cost
-poor spatial resolution
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event-related potentials (ERPs)
measures brain activity that is a direct response to a specific stimulus
+high temporal resolution
+high spatial resolution
-extraneous variables
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post mortems
study on peoples brains after death, if displayed a particular beh
+can examine factors other methods cant e.g neurochemical/anatomical
-problems not due to brain damage? no c+e
-lack of informed consent
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biological rhythm
changes of patterns in the body in a cyclical rhythm. e.g bio clock
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circadian rhythm
type of biorhythm subject to 24 hrs= sleep-wake cycles ."free-running"
-Aschoff and weaver, bunker,no Ez=24/25 bar 1
-Folkard, 24 to 22 hrs, most could adapt to 23, EZ can only entrain o limited extent
-Czeisler, dim light-22/28 hrs. candle-13/65 hrs
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6 months in Texan cave, "no EZ", could communicate via phone to researchers.
body clock settles at 25 hrs
-EZ still there
-case study
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the cycle that occurs more than once a day
e.g sleep
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a cycle that occurs less than once every 24 hours
e.g. menstruation
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endogenous pacemaker and
exogenous zeitgeber
ep- internal factors that regulate biorhythms

ez-factors outside the body that can entrain biorhythms e.g. light
+Miles case study (blind-drugs to sleep, even with other EZ could not reset)
+czeisler +jet lag
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stages of sleep
1. irregular and slower- theta waves. easily woken
2. k-complex, shallow
3. slow delta waves deep sleep
4. deep sleep, unresponsive
5. REM- dream sleep 90min cycle
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Ultradian -REM- Dement and Kleitman
aims=1.does REM sleep contain dreams
2. time irl=dream time
3. eyes irl= dream activity
EEG--> lab expt, wake ppts randomly and note stage --> ask what dreaming and how long
findings= 90 min, most REM at the end, most deep sleep at beginning, eyes not =ey
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Infradian - McClintock
menstruation study, 20 +9 ppts, collected pheromones from one group (armpit) and wiped under noses of other women.= 68% changed, some shortened /lengthened
-irregular periods to start-->changed?
+replicable--> Russel found the same (-Trevathan found none)
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infradian, low mood, eating, sleeping depressive disorder
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mechanism of sleep gate
1. darkness falls
2. message via optic nerve to SCN
3.SCN resets
4. SCN send message to pineal gland
5. pineal gland releases melatonin
6.melatonin influences sleep and levels of serotonin production
7. serotonin switches off- sleepy
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suprachiasmatic nucleus
in the hypothalamus, light provides primary reset.
+morgan- hamsters - transplant SCN and circadian rhythm changed
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-Campbell and murphy
- luce and Segal
-Katie cs
-light shone to back of knees resets SCN -not only one/ how?- mechanism

-arctic, darkness, if light important, how all stick to 24hrs without light.

-Katie, temp rhythm stayed same 24 hrs but circadian rhythm changed
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Somatic and autonomic


Somatic- controls voluntary movement
Autonomic- controls involuntary movement

Card 3


Sympathetic and parasympathetic


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Card 4


Synaptic transmission


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Excitation and inhibition


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