Britain in Conflict 1625-1701

A monarch with unlimited power
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Moderate Protestant member of the Church of England (EG Laud)
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Protestant Religious Group derived from Puritans - root of many radical sects later on
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Bishops' War
Scottish Rebellion against Charles I from 1637 because of the religious nature of the opposition to Charles I
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Blasphemy Act
Passed in 1650 by the Rump Parliament as a response to the development of more threatening radical religious groups like the Ranters
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Branch of the Christian Church headed by the Pope
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Rules by which each state is governed. At this time no 'written constitution' and England was said to be governed by an 'ancient constitution'
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Constitutional Monarchy
Monarchy limited through control by parliament
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Constitutional Royalism
Reaction by moderates worried by the development of parliamentary radicalism in the period 1640-1649
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Conventicle Act
Act to outlaw the meeting of groups of non-conformists in the Restoration period unless the received a licence from the government
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Attempt to overthrow the set order or remove key leader figures from power
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Court of High Commission
Church court through which non-conformists could be prosecuted for non-compliance with Laudianism in the 1630's
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Declaration of Independance
Issued by Charles II and James II in an attempt to broaden religious tolerance
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Post-Restoration non-conformists who did not agree with the established Church of England
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Divine Right
Belief that the monarch was God's representative, therefore a key justification for Royal Prerogative
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Payment made by a father to facilitate the marriage of his daughter
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Scientific enquiry based on evidence
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Farming technique of closing off open fields into smaller areas for cultivation and preventing more general common use
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Term for the attempts to exclude or prevent James, Duke of York from succeeding to the throne when Charles II died
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Those favoured by the monarch and thereby benefiting from the access to the monarch that was key to political influence
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Fifth Monarchists
Name given to the millenarians who became a more formal political and religious grouping from about 1650
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Forced Loan
Method of prerogative income used by Charles I in 1626
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Section of society below aristocracy, formed the bulk of Political Nation - different degrees of gentry status based on landed wealth
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Glorious Revolution
Term used to describe William of Orange's invasion to remove James II, creating constitutional monarchy in England
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Term used by puritans to describe themselves
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Hearth Tax
Wealth tax paid on each fireplace in a building
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French Protestants
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Humble Petition and Advice Act
1657 constitution which initially included the offer of the crown to Oliver Cromwell
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Means by which parliament could attempt to remove a minister of the crown
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Insurance against prosecution, soldiers especially, and those who might be exempted from punishment at the Restoration
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Economic term for the increase in prices over a period of time
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Instrument of Government
Britain's first written constitution that established Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector in 1657
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A religious order seen as the aggressive arm of the Catholic Church that fought to convert Protestant countries to Catholicism
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Joint Stock Company
An association of individuals in a business with shares of stock that can be traded. Stockholders are liable for the debts of the business
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Term for the offer of the crown to Oliver Cromwell
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Those churchmen who were willing to accept a broad range of Protestant opinion within the Church of England
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Term for Arminianism during the dominance of the Church of England by William Laud from 1628-1640
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Major Generals
Eleven New Model Army officers appointed to the rule of England and Wales directly in 1655-56
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Martial Law
Legal authority and political control exercised by military authority
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Development of trade deliberately to favour exports over imports
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Milita Ordinance
Parliament's establishment of its right, without royal assent, to raise armed forces in March 1642
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Belief in the end of the world as foretold in the bible. Common belief but groups like Fifth Monarchists believed that the end of the world was imminent
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Group of religious radicals that emerged from the English Revolution
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National Convenant
Organisation of resistance by Scottish Presbyterians to Charles I
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Term for those who were outside the Church of England after 1660
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Male -dominated society with the monarch seen as the father of his people. Concept reinforced the power of the monarch and fathers over their families
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Political Independents
Minority group in parliament, linked to the NMA in the build up to the execution of Charles I in 1649
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Political Nation
The political class members of society who influence how a country is run. This era, is was landowning aristocracy and gentry as well as other wealthy individuals 'elite'
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Political Presbyterians
Term for a majority group in parliament linked to the Scottish Presbyterians in the build up to the execution of Charles I in 1649
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Power of the crown in theory derived from God as divine right.
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Those who supported a church with a government of equal presbyters or elders often appointed by the congregation
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Term of rule of Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector as established by the written constitution (Instrument of Government)
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Radical Protestants who saw themselves as 'godly', Sought further reformation of the English church to remove the vestiges of Catholicism that remained from the reformation
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Radical religious group that emerged in 1649-1650 and became the subject of scandalous reports in the press
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Radical religious groups that emerged in the 1650's and grew rapidly
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Describes those who refused to attend the services of the Church of England
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Process by which England became a Protestant nation under Tudor monarchs in the 16th century
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Execution of a monarch or those who arranged it. Killing of a King.
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Scottish Kirk
The church in Scotland
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Secret Treaty of Dover
Agreement of 1670 by which Charles II would receive funds from his cousin Louis XIV in exchange for keeping parliament from sitting
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Ship Money/Tax
A prerogative form of income that a monarch could levy on coastal towns to provide emergency funds in time of conflict or threat in order to defend coastal regions and equip the fleet. 200,000 pa
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Main form of parlimentary tax
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Test Act
Act introduced in 1673 to prevent Catholics from holding any public office.
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Tax of one-tenth of an individuals income that was used to support the Church of England
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Tonnage and Poundage
the right to raise revenue for the whole of the monarch's reign from imports and exports
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Term for those moderate Anglicans who supported the crown in the period of 1678
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Term for political group that emerges around the desire for exclusion
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Long Parliament
although it was purges and unable to assemble for long periods it was not dissolved until March 1660
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Pym's Junto
The group that organised the opposition strategy to the king in the Long Parliament. Led by John Pym
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Commissions of Triers and Ejectors
Established in 1654 these commissions served to vet members of the clergy and eject unsuitable individuals.
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The time in which a throne is vacant between two successive reigns
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Farmers who owned their own land often consisted of a large farm
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Tenant farmers or small landowners
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Putting out system
Refers to the subcontracting of labour to those able to carry out work from home
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Marine Insurance
Financial coverage provided against risks to shipping including loss or theft of a ship or damage to cargo
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Triangular Trade
A system of trading in which a country pays for its imports from one country with exports from another
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Passive obedience
Unquestioning obedience to the authority of the monarch even when the monarch abuses his powers
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Universal Suffrage
the right for all adults including men and women to vote in elections
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Moderate Protestant member of the Church of England (EG Laud)



Card 3


Protestant Religious Group derived from Puritans - root of many radical sects later on


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Card 4


Scottish Rebellion against Charles I from 1637 because of the religious nature of the opposition to Charles I


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Passed in 1650 by the Rump Parliament as a response to the development of more threatening radical religious groups like the Ranters


Preview of the back of card 5
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