Chemistry - C1

Describe the nucleus structure of an atom?
Atoms are the building blocks of everything. they are tiny, nuclear model - the nucleus in the middle of the atom contains protons (+) and neutrons (no charge), Nucleus overall charge is positive.
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Structure of electrons?
Electrons move and surround the nucleus; minuscule, occupy shells around the nucleus, they are far away from the nucleus and that is free space. Has the same amount of protons and electrons, electrons are negative though = overall charge is neutral.
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What happens when you remove electrons from reacting?
The charge of a atom changes making it charged positively or
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What is an element?
group of one type of atom.
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How do you distinguish different types of atoms?
Different number of protons. The electrons and neutrons decide if its an isotope.
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What are the similarities that each of the columns / groups share?
Each column has similar properties - the groups are represented by Roman numerals. They have the same number of electrons in there outer shell. However the rows show for the majority how many shells it has
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What are the noble gases?
Group 0, the last column - all have full outer shells. - means they are stable and un reactive.
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In the squares of the symbol of the elements and numbers what does everything mean?
Top number = Mass number (neutrons + protons), bottom number = Atomic number (Number of protons and therefore the number of electrons)
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explain the idea of electron shells?
Electrons spin round and form shells. Each shell is supposed to identify as energy levels. The lowest energy level is closest to the nucleus. The number of electrons in shells go 2, 8, 8, 8.... Atoms always want full shells, thats how they react.
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What is a compound ?
A compound is 2 atoms joined together. When different elements react multiple compounds should form. Difficult to separate.
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Describe the two types of ways 2 atoms can react?
Ionic bonding - A metal + non metal --> from one giving an electron and the other collecting it (This changes the charges). Covalent - Non metals, molecules, they both share an electron if for example they both have 7 outer electrons.
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Whats the difference between a mixture and a compound?
mixture doesn't react, where as a compound does and forms a new molecule or product
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why do we balance equations?
Because we do not make or lose atoms. They don't appear out of nowhere or disappear into thin air. Everything goes somewhere and balancing is about finding where each 'Chunk' goes. Look on youtube if confused how to balance.
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what is Limestone - word and chemical?
Calcium Carbonate - CaCO3
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Calcium/ Mg/ Cu/ Zn/ Na carbonate when heated do what?
Decompose --> element-oxide + carbon dioxide.
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What is acid rain?
Sulphuric acid
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CaCO3 (or other elements) + sulphuric acid/ acid rain --> ?
(a salt) Calcium sulphate + water + Carbon dioxide (Limestone damaged by acid rain)
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Calcium Oxide + water --> ?
Calcium hydroxide (can be limewater)
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What is Calcium hydroxide used for?
It is an alkali used to neutralise acidic soil, limestone can also do this but its much slower. Also used to test for carbon dioxide - Limewater + CO2 --> cloudy solution (calcium carbonate + water)
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Whats limestone used for?
Slowly neutralising fields/ soils, heated = powdered clay or cement, cement + sand + water = mortar - sticks bricks, concrete
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What are the disadvantages of using Limestone?
quarried - huge ugly holes, using explosives - dangerous and loud, destroys habitats, pollutes from travel from the quarry with lorries, cement factories have a lot of dust - pollutes air, uses lots of energy (fossil) making cement, cracks easily
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what are the positives of using limestone?
demand for it, used in houses, roads, paints, neutralises acid rain/ soil, in power stations used to neutralise sulphur dioxide (cause of acid rain), jobs from quarrying, cheap, available, attractive, hard-wearing, easy, quick, rot/ fire resistant
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What is an ore?
A rock containing enough metal to make extraction worthwhile. In many cases the rock is the oxide of the metal. (aluminium ore - bauxite - aluminium oxide). however if the price of the metal drops it may not be worth extracting it.
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how do you extract metals from their ores?
Normally by chemical reactions, (reduction, electrolysis, or displacement) Often they have to be concentrated or have electrolysis before metal is extracted (purify or get rid of unwanted rocky material)
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Describe Reduction with Metal extraction from Ores?
Reduction is with carbon. it uses the thesis that carbon + Oxide = CO2. So, The metalOxide + Carbon has the oxygen removed to leave the metal and CO2. This can only happen if Carbon can displace the metal as C is more reactive. (elements below C)
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why is Electrolysis used in some extractions of metals from their ores?
Electrolysis is used for elements more reactive than Carbon in the reactivity series. (can't let C displace metal). It is expensive (high energy capacity elements -HBP/MP, more reactive elements)
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Describe the electrolysis?
For example copper: can be extracted with carbon but not pure enough. (bad - impurities stop conduction & Cu used in wires). Electrolysis - breaking up of a substance with electricity. YOUTUBE VIDEO 'Purifying copper | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool'
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What are the characteristics of the anode and cathode?
Anode - positive but impure metal, Cathode - negatively charged, but pure. Negative because when the Anode is split up the electrons (-) go to the cathode.
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What is sludge?
the impure parts of the impure ***** of metal at the the anode.
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what is the electrolyte?
the liquid in the beaker, which allows conduction of electricity. it is able to do this because it has free ions.
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Describe the displacement method to extract metals?
more reactive metals will react and displace less reactive metals. this is because they have the opportunity for stronger bonds. Eg. Copper sulphate + iron --> iron sulphate + copper.
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What are people doing because of the short supply of Copper rich ores?
Recycling Copper, finding ways to extract from low-grade ores . Eg. Bleaching and Phytomining.
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What is phytomining and Bleaching?
Bioleaching: uses bacteria which gets energy from bond between Cu and Sulphur - it is separated in the process. Cu is filtered out. Phytopmining: Plants grown. in copper based soil. plant takes in copper, stored in leaves. dried, burns in furnace.
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why is metal extraction good and bad?
Bad for the environment, sometimes mining, dangerous mineshaft, noise, scarring of environment. But metal is a useful material, provides jobs, money, and services such as transport and health can be improved.
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Why should we recycle metals?
Extraction uses energy & fossil fuels = bad for the environment, recycling reduces the need to extract more metals. it requires much less energy than fossil fuels (cheaper). Conserves metals (only finite amounts) by recycling. & doesn't go to waste
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Where do non recycled metals go to?
Landfill sites. they take up space and pollutes surroundings.
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What are the 3 main properties of all metals?
Strong (hard to break), malleable (rows of molecules) and great conductors - heat and electricity (sea of free delocalised electrons)
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Describe the specific properties of copper?
good conductor of electricity - ideal for electrical wires, hard, strong and can be bent, it also doesn't react with water.
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Describe the specific properties of Aluminium?
Corrosion resistant, low density, alloys of aluminium are strong and hard.
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Describe the specific properties of titanium?
Low density, very strong and is corrosion resistant.
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Why are different metals chosen for different jobs?
Because all metals have qualities which are specifically good for certain things. So they 'specialise' in them.
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What happens to metals through time?
They get 'tired' when strains are repeatedly put on over time. This is called Metal Fatigue - causes metals to break (dangerous for planes). can also corrode, and need to be protected, if they corrode they lose strength and hardness and disintegrate
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What is the particle arrangement of a pure metal and why does it compromise its use?
The pure metal has a regular pattern, in layers - which can slide over each other. This means that the metal is malleable and although this is useful because it allows it to change shape, but it can be too bendy sometimes and not strong enough.
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How is steel formed?
adding small amounts of carbon and sometimes other metals to iron.
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What are the properties and uses of the 3 types of metal?
Low carbon steel (0.1% carbon) - easily shaped - car bodies... High carbon steel (1.5% carbon) - Very hard, inflexible - for blades in cutting tools, bridges... Stainless steel (chromium added and sometimes nickel) - Corrosion resistant - cutlery.
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Why are alloys harder than pure metal?
Different sized atoms are in alloys, this disrupts the pattern and neat layers. This makes it hard for them to slide over each other - so they are harder.
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What are the metals in Bronze?
Copper + Tin - strong and hard. good for medals and statues.
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What are the metals in Cupronickel?
Copper + nickel - Corrosion resistant - for silver coins
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what are gold alloys used for and why?
Pure gold is too soft. Metals such as zinc, copper, silver, nickel and palladium Harden Gold and its used for jewellery.
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What are aluminium alloys good for ?
Aircrafts, as aluminium had a low density but when small amounts of other metals it makes it also stronger.
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What is cruel oil?
Crude oil is the mixture of compounds - mainly hydrocarbons. Because they aren't chemically bonded each different length hydrocarbon keeps its original properties - easily separable. eg. smaller chains of Hydrocarbons have a low condensing points.
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How does the fractional distillation of Hydrocarbons in crude oil work for long chains?
Long chains of hydrocarbons in crude oil go into the bottom of the fractional distillation tank. (bottom = hotter, top = cooler). Large chains in the mixture = don't condense even at high ºC, so they can't rise up through the gaps and are removed.
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How does the fractional distillation of Hydrocarbons in crude oil work for short chains?
when the temperature decreases at each level some can't be condensed anymore so don't rise up further. They are filtered off and used for specific things.
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What type of hydrocarbon is in crude oil?
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What is an alkane? (CnH2n+2)
Alkanes are chains of carbon atoms covalently (singularly) bonded, surrounded by hydrogens.. There are different names for the different length chains - methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), Propane (C3H8), and Butane (C4H10). each Carbon atom has 4 bonds.
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Why are alkanes saturated?
Because carbons have 4 bonds to either other carbon atoms or hydrogen atoms, they have formed as many bonds as they can - so they are saturated.
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What are the trends in smaller to larger alkanes?
Shorter the molecule is - more runny it is (less viscous/ gloopy), lower temperature it will turn into a gas (volatile), vaporise, condense, and boil (Low BPT).
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what are some of the uses of hydrocarbons/ alkanes/ crude oil?
depends on length - Bpt's and volatility. But shorter = good for bottled gas (camping gas for cooker). Longer = high boiling point - so can be good for petrol as it stays liquid, and so flows in the engine to vaporise and mix in air before igniting.
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Pros of crude oil?
They burn easily, so good fuels, machines adapted to fuel of crude oil - needed, crude oil also used for chemicals which are in materials like plastic. provides a lot of energy quickly and reliable, alternatives are slow/ less reliable/ produces less
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Cons of crude oil?
Non renewable, will run out and don't know when, although more oil reserves are being found & it's cheaper to extract than before (technology advance), still expensive, when it runs out hard to change as dependence on it. bad for planet.
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Why is crude oil bad for the environment? (less detail)
Oil spills during transportation in the middle of the ocean - hurt sea wildlife. (birds covered in oil and poisoned, fish and especcialy sea otters & whales can be poisoned too. Burning oil causes global warming, acid rain, global dimming, pollution.
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What happens if we don't prepare for the change when we run out of crude oil, to renewable resources?
We will not have nearly enough energy and will have to go without until we get enough renewable sources.
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what is the equation of crude oils pollution?
Hydrocarbon + oxygen --> Carbon dioxide + Water vapour (sometimes sulphur dioxide / oxides of nitrogen are also produced which is very bad - mixes with clouds, acid rain, makes lakes acidic, plants die, limestone corrode, harms animals & us)
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What makes complete combustion in pollution?
when there is enough oxygen to use use up all the carbon to turn it into carbon dioxide - and all the fuel is used up.
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How can you reduce sulphur emissions; acid rain?
Remove sulphur from fuels before they are burnt (but its expensive and takes a lot of energy - from burning more fuel - more CO2) or we could reduce our fossil fuel usage, or have acid gas scrubbers (they take out harmful gases out before they
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what happens if keep increasing to carbon dioxide we release in pollution?
the climate temperature will increase. (global warming). the climate change also effects rain fall patterns, flooding probability, and polar caps melting.
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What is global dimming?
when particles from fossil fuels are burnt they reflect sunlight back into space, they also help make more clouds which also reflect - dimming the world. 25% less sunlight reaches the earth than it did 50 years ago.
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What are three alternative fuels being made?
Ethanol, biodiesel and Hydrogen gas
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What is ethanol and what are the pros to it?
Produced from plant material (also know as biofuel), made from fermentation of plants and can power some cars (can be mixed with petrol). PRO: CO2 taken in and out by growing and burning of plants in the process. 'carbon neutral'
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What are the cons to ethanol?
ethanol isn't widely available, lots of plants need to grow for it. More farmers would focus on making fuel rather than food = food shortages and increase in food prices. Also engines need to be converted so they can use the fuel.
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What is biodiesel and its pros?
Biofuel, produced from vegetable oils, (like rapeseed and soybean oil), can be mixed with normal fuel to run diesel engines. PROS: carbon neutral, engines don't need to be converted, produces much less sulphur dioxide and particulates less
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What are the Cons of Biodiesel?
Cant make enough to completely replace diesel, its expensive to make and could increase food prices.
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What is hydrogen gas fuel and its pros?
Can power engines, get hydrogen from electrolysis of water, plenty of water around, but takes electrical energy to split it up. PRO: hydrogen combines with oxygen in the air to form just water so its clean.
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What are the cons to hydrogen gas fuel?
Need special, expensive engines, and hydrogen isn't widely available, still use lots of energy from another source which needs to be fuelled. hydrogen is also hard to store.
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Define cracking?
Splitting up of long chain hydrocarbons
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What is the main property of a long chain hydrocarbon?
Thick and gloopy liquid (like tar) - not useful, this is why they are turned into shorter length hydrocarbons by cracking.
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Give 3 examples of how smaller length hydrocarbons are useful?
Paraffin - jet fuel, petrol and ethene - helps makes plastics.
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what type of reaction is cracking?
Thermal decomposition. - breaking molecules down by heating them.
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cracking is different to fractional distillation, how does cracking break longer chains?
The long-chain molecules are heated to vaporise it (turn it to gas). The vapour is passed over a powdered catalyst (generally Aluminium oxide) at high temperatures (400-700ºC). The long chain molecules crack on the surface on the specks of catalyst.
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What are the products of cracking?
Alkanes and alkanes (unsaturated hydrocarbons). e.g. Long chain hydrocarbon --> shorter hydrocarbon/ alkane + an alkene
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What are the environmental problems with cracking?
same as fractional distillation. - oil rigs can break, transporting pollutes, acid rain, global dimming and climate change. And its running out.
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What is an alkene?
Hydrocarbons with a double bond between two carbon bonds (=) - Only double bond in each chain of hydrocarbons. They are unsaturated, can make more bond (because double bond can be broken opening space for more Hydrogens).
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What is the general formula for an alkene?
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What are the three alkenes you need to know (in order of number of carbons)?
Ethene (C2H4), propane (C3H6), butane (C4H8)
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How do you test for alkenes?
Add the substance to bromine water. An alkene will decolourise the bromine water from orange. This is because the double bond has opened up and formed new bonds with the bromine.
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how is ethanol produced from ethene + steam?
it's hydrated with steam and (in the presence of a catalyst) makes ethanol. This is a cheap process - not much ethene is wasted and its a cheap product. But ethene is produced from cracking -non renewable resource so it will become expensive
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How can ethanol be produced from renewable sources?
Alcohols are produced by ethene and steam. Its done by fermentation. Sugar (with yeast) --> carbon dioxide and ethanol. not a high temperature and requires simpler equipment and materials.
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What is the pros and cons for making ethanol with sugar?
it's renewable, and poorer countries grow it -gives them money. also makes ethanol for petrol so those poorer countries can access it cheaply and easily. However
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how are Alkenes used to make polymers?
Small alkene chains molecules (monomers) joined together to form long chain molecules (polymers) . EG. ethene molecules can join to produce polythene / poly(ethene), or propene to poly(propene)
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what are the two poly(ethene)s?
LD - made at 200ºC with 2000 atmosphere pressure is flexible and low Density. HD - 60ºC and few atmosphere pressure, with a catalyst is rigid and dense.
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What are the uses for LD and HD poly(ethene)?
Plastic bag, lycra fibre for tights, tooth fillings, waterproof coatings, hydrogel wound dressing keeps wounds moist, memory foam (smart material - softer as it warms up)
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What are the environmental issues of poly(ethene)?
They aren't biodegradable - aren't broken down by microorganisms, they don't rot. At landfills they just stay there. So they have to be reused and recycled if suggested (but often they is no point as its more expensive to recycle than make more).
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What happens with poly(ethene) if we run out of crude oil?
We will not be able to make some plastics as we need it to make poly(ethene). We will have to decide where to use crude oil? materials or fuel.
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What ae some examples of naturally occurring polymers?
Rubber and silk and in DNA
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Where can oil generally extracted from naturally?
Plants - fruits, seeds, nuts. which can be used for food or fuel.
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What are the 3 ways to remove oil from plants?
1. crushed and pressed to get the oil out. 2. It can be removed by centrifuge - spins like a spin-dryer squeezing the liquid out of solids. 3. Or by distillation refines oil - by removing water, solvents and impurities.
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what are the 3 ways vegetable oils can be used?
1. Food - high in energy, vitamin e, & has fatty acids, needed for metabolic processes. 2. cooking - HPT's (higher than H20), allows higher temperature/ faster cooking, gives and enhances flavour. 3. fuels - lots of energy, HPT allow for a good fuel
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what is margarine made of?
Oils (runny at room temperature) which are hydrogenated.
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Is oil long chain or short chain?
long chain.
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how many double bonds are there in both monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats (alkenes)?
Alkenes are unsaturated, meaning they must have a double bond. a mono (one chain) has one bond. and lots of monounsaturated fats together = polyunsaturated fats, so there are more than one double bond.
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describe the arrangement of unsaturated oils when they are hydrogenated?
Oil (liquid at room temp)+ hydrogen (with nickel catalysts and at 60ºC) hardens. The hydrogen reacts with double bonds and open out them. Therefore there is room for the hydrogen reacted with it (and no double bond anymore).
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what can hydrogenated oils be used for?
margarine, butters, spreads and so for biscuits, cakes, cakes, pastries etc.
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what are the three types of hydrogenated oils?
1. Saturated fats are bad for you as they increase cholesterol and increase risk of heart disease. unsaturated is better for you but still not great. and partially hydrogenated, although unsaturated, have trans fat which also increase cholesterol.
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What is an emulsion?
droplets of insoluble liquid (i.e. oil) in a soluble liquid (i.e. water)/ droplets of a soluble liquid in an insoluble liquid. When shaken, it forms a thicker liquid.
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What are some examples of emulsion mixtures?
Paint, mayonaise, milk, salad dressing, cream and moisturisers.
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What is an emulsifier job?
Normally shaking an emulsion, mixes them but they slowly separate after a while. An emulsifier doesn't allow it separate.
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How does an emulsifier keep the liquids together?
The molecule has 2 parts: one attracted to water and the other attracted to oil. When shaken with an emulsifier, the oil forms droplets and the emulsifier coating it: oil attracted side in the oil, and water attracted side in the water
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How does the oil and water stay together by the oil being surrounded by an emulsifier?
because the water attracting molecules surrounding the oil repel other oil droplets so they don't join together and the two separate out.
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Define Hydrophilic?
The part of the emulsifier molecule attracted to water.
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Define hydrophobic?
The part of the emulsifier molecule attracted to oil.
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What are the pros and cons of emulsifier?
PROS: gives emulsions a longer shelf life as they don't separate out, allows food companies to produce foods lower in fat but still a good texture. CONS: some people have allergies to emulsifiers, for example egg, which is a common allergy.
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What was the original theory of why the earth is 'wrinkly' with all its mountains and valleys?
The earth was cooling from when it was formed, and was shrinking.
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What is Werner's evidence for the continental drift?
Found that same species fossil were on opposite sides of the world - & that some animals would have died living in conditions they were found in. He saw that the continents matched up like a jigsaw and matching layers in rocks. & concluded the drift
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What is wegener's theory of the continental drift?
That 300 million years ago, there had been one 'supercontinent'. This land mass, broke into smaller chunks and moved apart and are still moving apart. (by ploughing through the sea bed)
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Why wasn't it accepted and what were peoples original beliefs?
They thought There was a land bridge so animals could walk to other countries, they didn't think it could have the force to move, some said the movement would have stopped the world rotating, he wasn't a 'proper' theologist.
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Why did some people begin to support the idea of the continental drift?
People found evidence on the ocean floor, and in 1960's they found that the earths crust was made of tectonic plates (chunks), and they move about and colliding one push land up to create mountains.
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What are the layers of the earth?
Crust -thin outer layer. closer in, is the mantle - all the properties of a solid but it can flow. radioactive decay takes place here - cause of flow as its very hot (convection). At the centre there is the core - think is made of iron & nickel.
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what is the earths surface made up of?
tectonic plates. (big rafts that float on the mantle, which drift a few cm per year)
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How do earthquake occur?
when the plates move very suddenly. This makes them impossible to predict because the plates can stay still for hundreds of years and then suddenly move.
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What is a clue that there may be an volcano eruption?
Molten rock rises up into chambers near the surface, causing a slight bulge in the ground (can cause mini earthquakes near the volcano). However sometimes the molten rock can cool and the earthquakes are false alarms.
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Roughly how much does the earth contain of nitrogen and oxygen?
80% of nitrogen and 20% of oxygen and small amounts of other gases.
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Whats phase one of the evolution of the atmosphere?
Earths crust was molten for millions of years, so gases went to space. Then it cooled down, a thin crust formed, but volcanos kept erupting; letting out gases. Mainly CO2, a little O2, small amounts of water vapour (condensed for sea). and other gas.
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Whats phase 2 of the evolution of the atmosphere?
Greens plants and algae formed over the earth . lots of the Carbon dioxide however dissolved into the ocean or was absorbed by the algae with photosynthesis (producing O2). The algae dies and was buried under layers of rock, skeletons and shells.
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How did phase 2 in the evolution of the atmosphere create fossil fuels?
Hydrocarbons in the rocks, fossils and shells became 'locked up' as insoluble carbonates (e.g. limestone) and fossil fuels.
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Whats phase 3 of the evolution of the atmosphere?
the oxygen killed off many organisms who couldn't live with it. But other organisms flourished. The oxygen also created an ozone layer (O3), which blocked harmful rays from the sun and enabled even more complex organism to form. But virtually no CO2
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What is the primordial soup theory?
Billions of years ago the earths atmosphere was made from hydrocarbons, ammonia and more. Lightning struck causing a chemical reaction between them, and amino acids formed in a pool /'primordial soup'. Where organic matter evolved.
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What experiment did they do to prove the primordial soup theory?
In 1950's Miller and Urey carried out an experiment where they sealed the gases in an apparatus, heated them and applied an electrical charge. Amino acids formed, but not as many as there are on earth.
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why do we fractionally distillate air?
the ears atmosphere is enriched with resources which are very useful. when fractionally distilling air you can get elements such as nitrogen, oxygen and argon.
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How do you fractionally distillation air after it is filtered from dust?
Cooled to -200ºC & turns liquid, here H2O vapour condensed and CO2 freezes so they can be removed. Then the liquified air enters fractionating column & heated slowly, here the remaining gases are separated by fractional distillation.
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How are argon, liquid oxygen and nitrogen separated out after the fractionating column when distilling air?
Nitrogen as goes to the top because it has a really Low BPT and is a gas at temperatures around -200ºC. Whereas the oxygen and argon filter at the bottom because they have similar M/BPT' and are both liquids at this temperature, so sink.
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what happens when we burn fossil fuels and release CO2, to the climate and oceans?
Causes global warming, (world heats up). And the oceans (they store CO2). They absorb too much as we are producing too much CO2, which turns the sea too acidic and kills corals and shellfish and they may become saturated with CO2 one day.
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Structure of electrons?


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