Chemistry revision

  • Created by: Pippa
  • Created on: 09-06-13 19:56
What is a metal ore?
A metal ore is arock that contains enouigh metal to make it worthwhile extracting the metal from it.
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Most metals need to be extracted from their ores using a...?
Chemical reaction
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A metal can be extracted from its ore chemically. What is these proceses called?
Reduction and electrolysis
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Occasionally metals can be extracted from ores using ...?
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What element is used to extract a metal from an ore by reduction?
A metal can be extracted from its ore chemcially by reduction using carbon
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True or false? (True)
The position of a metal in the reactivity series determines whether it can be extracted by reduction with carbon.
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Meatls higher than carbon in the reactivity series have to be extracted using what process?
Metals can be extracted using electrolysis which can be expensive.
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What are the names of the elements in the reactivity series in order?
The reactivity series (picture)
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Electrolysis means..
Splitting up with electricity
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What does electrolysis need?
It needs a liquid to conduct the elecricity (the electrolyte)
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What does the elctrolyte have that make it conduct electricity?
Free ions
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Electrons are taken away by the ..?
Positive anode
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Electrons are given away by the ..?
Negative cathode
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What do ions become after losing or gaining electrons?
They become atoms or molecules and are released.
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What are two ways that can be used to extract copper?
Bioleaching and Phytomining
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What is Bioleaching?
This uses bacteria to separate copper from copper sulfide.The bacteria get eneergy form the bond between copper and sulphur,sparating out the copper from the ore in the process.
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What is phytomining?
This involves growing plants in soil that contains copper.The plants can use or get rid of the copper so it builds up in the leaves. They can be burned and the copper collected from the ash left in the furnace.
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What is an alloy?
When two pure metals can be mixed together.
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Why are alloys harder that pure metals?
Diffrent elements have different sized atoms. So when an elemnt such as carbon is added to pure iron,the smaller carbon atom will upset the layers of pure iron atoms,making it more diffrent to slide over each other.So alloys are harder.
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What is crude oil formed from?
From the buried remains of plants and animals - its a fossil fuel.
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Crude oil is a mixture of..?
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What are hydrocarbons made of?
Carbon and hydrogen
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Are the hydrocarbon molecules chemically bonded to one another in crude oil?
No, there are no chemical bonds between different parts of a mixture so the hydrocarbons aren't chemically bonded.
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How does the fractionating column work?
It works continuously with heated crude oil piped in at the bottom. The vapourised oil rises up the column and the various fractions are constantly tapped off at the different levels where they condense.
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What are the first four alkanes?
Methane,ethane,propane and butane
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What are the basic trends?
The shorter the molecule the less viscious. The shorter the molecules,the more volatile they are. Also the shorter the molecule the more flammable they are.
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Crude oil is a..?
Non-renewable fuel
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During combustion the carbon and hydrogen are oxidised so they produce?
They produce carbon dioxide and water vapour.
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Cracking means....
Splitting up long chain hydrocarbons
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What type of reaction is cracking?
Thermal decomposition
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What are the steps of cracking?
1) The first step is to heat the long chain hydrocarbon to vapourise it. 2)The vapour is passed over a catalyst at a temperature of 400 degrees to 700 degrees 3)Aluminium oxide is the catalyst used
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True or False? (True)
Alkenes have a C=C double bond
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How can you test for an alkene?
You can add bromine water (orange colour) and an alkene will decolourise to make it colourless. Thsi is because the double bond has opened up and formed bonds with the bromine
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What can ethene we reatced with to make ethanol?
Ethene can be reacted with steam to produce ethanol. Ethene can be hydrated with steam in the presence of a catalyst to make ethanol.
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The alcohol in beer and wine isn't made from ethene. What is it made by?
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What is fermentation?
The raw material for fermentation is sugar. This is converted into ethanol using yeast.
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What is the word equation for fermentation?
Sugar --> carbon dioxide + ethanol
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What is polymerisation?
Many monomers join together to make a polymer (plaWstic)
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What causes plates to drift?
Convection currents in the mantle cause the plates to move.
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What were the gases in the early atmosphere?
78 %nitrogen, 21% oxygen, small amounts of other gases,mainly acrbon dioxide,noble gases and water vapour.
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Card 2


Most metals need to be extracted from their ores using a...?


Chemical reaction

Card 3


A metal can be extracted from its ore chemically. What is these proceses called?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Occasionally metals can be extracted from ores using ...?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What element is used to extract a metal from an ore by reduction?


Preview of the front of card 5
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