Chronic neurological conditions

  • Created by: liv
  • Created on: 02-01-23 15:42
What is dementia?
An overall term covering Alzheimers and vascular dementia
Caused by abnormal brain changes that trigger a decline in cognitive abilities
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What is Alzheimer's
Disruption in communication between neurons that send messages between different parts of the brain and to organs and muscles
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Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's
Destroys neurons and their connections in parts of the brain involved in memory, later affecting the cerebral cortex responsible for language, reasoning and social behaviour
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Symptoms of Alzheimer's
Memory loss and confusion
Difficulty with language and problems reasoning
Inability to learn new things
Difficulty organising thoughts
Shortened attention span
Problems coping with new situations
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Pharmacological interventions for Alzheimers
Cholinesterase inhibitors help reduce or control some symptoms
Aducanumab is disease-modifying drug used to treat Alzheimers - reduces amyloid plaques
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What is vascular dementia
Reduction in blood flow to the brain which damages and kills cells
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Symptoms of vascular dementia
Slowness of thought
Difficulty planning and understanding
Problems with concentration
Changes to mood, personality or behaviour
Feeling disoriented and confused
Difficulty walking and keeping balance
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Pharmacological interventions for vascular dementia
Anticoagulants reduce the risk of clots and further strokes
Medicines to treat risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes
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What is Huntington's?
Rare, inherited disease that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain
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Pathophysiology of Huntington's
Gradual degeneration of parts of the basal ganglia (located at the base of the cerebrum)
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Symptoms of Huntington's
Difficulty concentration
Memory lapses
Stumbling and clumsiness
Involuntary jerking or fidgety movements
Mood swings and personality changes
Problems with swallowing, speaking and breathing
Difficulty moving
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Treatment of Huntingtons
No cure but treatment and support can help reduce some problems
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What is motor neuron disease?
A rare condition affecting the brain and spinal cord
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Pathophysiology of motor neuron disease
Occurs when motor neurones in the brain and spinal cord stop working properly
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Symptoms of motor neurone disease
Weakened grip
Weakness at the shoulder
Weak ankle muscles
Dragging of the leg
Dysarthria (slurred speech)
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Treatment of motor neurone disease
Treatment aims to make the person feel comfortable and have the best quality of life as possible
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What is multiple sclerosis
Immune system attacks myelin which is the protective layer around nerve fibres
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Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis
Myelin that is attacked becomes inflamed and has temporary lesions
This makes it hard for the brain to send signals to the rest of the body
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Symptoms of multiple sclerosis
Difficulty walking
Difficulty balance
Muscle weakness
Vision problems
Speech issues
Cognitive issues
Sleep issues
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Treatment for multiple sclerosis
No cure but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life
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What is myasthenia graves?
A chronic autoimmune, neuromuscular disease that causes weakness in the skeletal muscles
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Pathophysiology of myasthenia gravis
Immune system produces antibodies that block or destroy many of the muscles' receptor sites for acetylcholine
The muscles receive fewer signals resulting in weakness
Usually affects the muscles in the face
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Symptoms of myasthenia gravis
Droopy eyelids
Double vision
Difficulty making facial expressions
Problems chewing and difficulty swallowing
Slurred speech
Week arms, legs or neck
Shortness of breath
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Treatment for myasthenia gravis
Treatment can relieve symptoms but there is no cure
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What is Parkinson's?
Brain disorder that causes unintended or uncontrollable movements
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Pathophysiology of Parkinson's
Nerve cells in the basal ganglia become impaired or die
These neurones normally produce dopamine
Less dopamine causes the movement problems associated with the disease
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Symptoms of Parkinson's
Difficulty walking
Difficulty talking
Mental, behavioural changes
Sleep problems
Memory difficulties
Muscle stiffness
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Treatment for Parkinson's
No cure but treatment can relieve symptoms
Medicines to increase levels of dopamine
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Card 2


What is Alzheimer's


Disruption in communication between neurons that send messages between different parts of the brain and to organs and muscles

Card 3


Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's


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Card 4


Symptoms of Alzheimer's


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Card 5


Pharmacological interventions for Alzheimers


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