Define classification
Process by which living organisms are identified and sorted into groups
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Name the 7 taxonomic groups
Kingdom phylum class order family genus species
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Why do scientists classify organisms
To identify species, to predict characteristics, to find evolutionary links
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Name the 3 domains
Archaea, bacteria, eukarya
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Define species
Group of organisms that are able to reproduce to produce fertile offspring
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Why are mules infertile
Their cells contain an odd number of chromosomes so meisosis can't take place
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What is the name of the system which names organisms
Binomial nomenclature
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What are the 5 kingdoms
Prokaryote, protoctista, fungi, animalia, plantae
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Name the features of a prokaryote
Unicellular, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, small ribosomes
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Name the features of a protoctista
Unicellular, nucleus, organelles, autotroph AND heterotroph
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Name features of fungi
Chitin cell wall, saprophytic, nucleus, organelles
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Why are there now domains
Different RNA, different ribosomes
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Difference between archaebacteria and eubacteria
A.bacteria - live in extreme environments E.bacteria - all environments
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Define phylogeny
Evolutionary relationships between organisms
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Describe natural selection
Organism best suited to its environment survive and reproduce, passing on their successful alleles to their offspring
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what did Darwin discover
Finches on different islands had different beaks, each beak was suited to the food available, bird with best beak survived longer and have more offspring passing on the successful beak charactistic
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Evidence for evolution
Fossils, characteristics of anatomy, common ancestor, similarities in biochemistry such as proteins - cytochrome c sequence of DNA or amino acids
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Difference between interspecifc and intraspecific variation
Interspecific - variation between members of DIFFERENT species Intraspecific - variation WITHIN a species
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Factors that affect variation (2)
Genetic material and environment
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What are the causes of genetic variation (5)
Allele variation, mutation, meiosis (independent assortment), sexual reproduction, chance
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Difference between continuous and discontinuous variation
Continuous - any value within a range, controlled by genes and environment e.g height and mass Discontinuous - distinct categories, controlled by a single gene e.g. An animals sex (either male or female)
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What is the shape of s normal distribution curve
Bell shaped curve
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What is standard deviation
Measure of how spread out the data is (greater the standard deviation, greater th spread of data)
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What is the students t test
Compares the mean values of 2 sets of data
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What are the types of adaption (3)
Anatomical (physical), behavioural, physiological
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Give examples of anatomical adaptions (4)
Body covering ( hair, feathers, spines), camouflage, teeth, mimicry
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Give examples of behavioural adaptions (3)
Survival behaviour (play dead), courtship, seasonal - hibernation/ migration
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Give examples of physiological adaptions
Poison production, antibiotic production, water holding
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What are analogous structures
Structure adapted to perform the same function but have a different genetic origin
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What is convergent evolution
When unrelated species begin to share similar traits
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What are selection pressures
Factors that affect an organisms chance of survival
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Card 2


Name the 7 taxonomic groups


Kingdom phylum class order family genus species

Card 3


Why do scientists classify organisms


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Card 4


Name the 3 domains


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Card 5


Define species


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