A set of things working together in an interconnecting network
1 of 100
A thousand years
2 of 100
What is put in or taken in by a process or system
3 of 100
The action or process of producing something
4 of 100
Open system
A system that transfers both energy and matter across boundaries
5 of 100
Kinetic energy
The energy of motion
6 of 100
Potential energy
The energy an object has because of its position (has the potential to be converted into other forms)
7 of 100
Thermal energy
The energy generated and measured by heat
8 of 100
Geomorphic processes
Natural processes of erosion, weathering and deposition
9 of 100
Nearshore zone
The zone extending seaward from the low water line in which the waves break
10 of 100
The process of turning a liquid to a vapour
11 of 100
Transport systems, such as the movement of sediment cells
12 of 100
Longshore drift
The movement of material along a coast by waves
13 of 100
A state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced
14 of 100
Dynamic equilibrium
A system where inputs and outputs remain in balance. If changes occur, feedback will allow for correction.
15 of 100
Negative feedback
An automatic response to change in a system that restores equilibirum
16 of 100
Sediment cell
A stretch of coastline and its associated nearshore within the movement of sediment is self-contained
17 of 100
Closed system
A system that transfers energy but not matter
18 of 100
The length of open water over which a given wind has blown
19 of 100
Aeolian processes
Erosional, transportational and depositional processes by the wind
20 of 100
Wave period
The time period/interval between successive wave crests
21 of 100
Swell waves
A relatively smooth ocean wave that travels some distance from the area of generation
22 of 100
Storm waves
A wave generated locally by high winds
23 of 100
The movement of water up a beach after a wave has broken
24 of 100
The flow of water down a beach after a wave has broken
25 of 100
Constructive wave
They are created in calm weather. They deposit material and have a stronger swash than backwash.
26 of 100
Destructive wave
They are created in storm conditions. They erode the coast, and have a stronger backwash than swash.
27 of 100
The cyclic rise and fall of sea level caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon.
28 of 100
Tidal range
The evrtical differenece in height between consecutive high and low water over a tidal cycle.
29 of 100
The chemical and physical characteristics of rock types
30 of 100
The physical characteristics of rocks (eg, their jointing).
31 of 100
A body of water's outline or morphology as defined by the still water line
32 of 100
When the rock type runs parallel to the sea
33 of 100
When the rock type runs perpendicular to the sea
34 of 100
Rip currents
Strong and quite narrow currents of water that flow seaward against the breaking waves
35 of 100
A pointed and regular arc pattern of sediment on the beach
36 of 100
Ocean currents
The large scale horizontal flow of ocean water (at surface and depth) driven by winds
37 of 100
Sub-aerial processes
A collective term for weathering and mass movement processes
38 of 100
Sediment budget
The balance of sediment entering and exiting a particular section of the coast
39 of 100
Breakdown but not movement of material
40 of 100
A mechancial weathering process caused by water, confined in rock joints, expanding as it freezes and so breaking rocks into smaller pieces.
41 of 100
Pressure release
Overlying materials are removed (by erosion), which causes underlying rocks to expand and fracture parallel to the surface.
42 of 100
Thermal expansion
Increase in volume due to its rise in temperature
43 of 100
Salt crystallisation
Salt crystals are deposited in cracks. They accumulate and apply pressure to the crack.
44 of 100
Chemical weathering
The breakdown of rocks by chemical processes, such as oxidation solutions and hydrolysis
45 of 100
A chemical process that weathers certain types of rocks and involves the adsorption of oxygen by rock minerals
46 of 100
The mixing of water with CO2 to form carbonic acid, which reacts with minerals in rocks
47 of 100
The chemical weathering process by which rock minerals ate dissolved
48 of 100
Fine, light material carried along in the water
49 of 100
Hydrogen in the water reacts with the minerals in the rocks.
50 of 100
The breakdown of rocks by cycle of wetting (expansion) and drying (contraction)
51 of 100
Tree Roots
A form of biological weathering, as tree roots grow in cracks in the rocks, causing them to break
52 of 100
Organic Acids
Formed by the decomposition of plant litter, organic acids turn the soil water acidic in a process called chelation.
53 of 100
A loose layer of rocky material overlying bedrock
54 of 100
Rock fall
A fall of rock, from a cliff or slope
55 of 100
Rock slides
Occurs when solid rock is transported down a slope
56 of 100
The mechanical scraping of a rock surface by friction
57 of 100
The erosion of sediment transported by rivers, glaciers, waves and wind
58 of 100
Hydraulic action
The erosion that occurs that when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. It is the ability of moving water to dislodge and transport rock particles.
59 of 100
Small pebbles and stones are bounced along the river bed.
60 of 100
Large boulders and rocks are rolled along the river bed
61 of 100
The process where material being transported by a river is deposited
62 of 100
Settling velocity
The spped required for suspended partciles of a given size to be deposited
63 of 100
Ridges of coarse deposits found alongside stream channels and elevated above the floodplain
64 of 100
Crevasse splays
Low-lying areas of deposited sediment between leeves
65 of 100
A process by which salt causes the aggregation of minute clay particles into larger masses, too heavy to remain suspended
66 of 100
Erosion of clay and silt-like particles by wind action in drylands
67 of 100
They layers or beds found in sedimentary rocks
68 of 100
The body of water partially surrounded by land
69 of 100
A point of land (usually with a sheer drop) that extends out into a body of water
70 of 100
Wave refraction
The reorientation of wave fronts as they enter shallow water so they approach parallel to the shore
71 of 100
Imaginary lines, perpendicular to the wave fronts, representating the transfer of energy as a wave moves towards the coast
72 of 100
Occurs when waves force their way into cracks in the cliff face
73 of 100
If a cave is formed ina headland, it may eventually break through to the other side, forming an arch
74 of 100
Steep and often vertical columns of rock in the sea near a coast
75 of 100
Erosion of the stack causes it to collapse and form a small stump
76 of 100
A small stream inbetween ridges and intervening depressions
77 of 100
Small ridges that develop at the position of the mean high tide mark
78 of 100
Semi-circular depressions formed by a collection of waves reaching the same point
79 of 100
An extended stretch of beach material that projects out to sea
80 of 100
Onshore bars
Formed when a spit grows across a bay
81 of 100
Formed when an island is attached to the mainland by a spit or bar
82 of 100
Salt marshes
May be formed behind a spit, which causes a sheltered area where salt is deposited
83 of 100
Cloudy or muddy conditions in a river owing to the sediments held in suspension
84 of 100
Flat areas of ground covered with salt deposited by the evapouration of saline water
85 of 100
A mass formed in a fluid by the aggretation of suspended particles
86 of 100
An area of land in which divides into smaller rivers and empties into a larger body of water
87 of 100
Small branching stream channels that flow away from a main stream or river.
88 of 100
Eustatic change
when the sea level changes due to an alteration in the volume of water in the oceans
89 of 100
Emergent landforms
A landform that has been exposed by the sea by a relative fall in sea levels
90 of 100
The mixing of materials in the soil due to freezing and thawing
91 of 100
A drowned river valley
92 of 100
A drowned glacial valley
93 of 100
Sea walls
A wall built to prevent the sea flooding a piece of land
94 of 100
A low wall built out into the sea to prevent erosion and longshore drift
95 of 100
A box filled with stones to prevent cliff collapse and erosion
96 of 100
Hard engineering
Controlled disruption of natural processes using man-made structures
97 of 100
Soft engineering
The use of ecological principles and practices to reduce erosion and stablize the shoreline
98 of 100
Beach recharge
A process by which sediment lost through longshore drift or erosionis replaced from other sources, such as offshore sediment stores
99 of 100
Rip rap
Rock or other material used to armour shorelines against erosion
100 of 100

Other cards in this set

Card 2


A thousand years



Card 3


What is put in or taken in by a process or system


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


The action or process of producing something


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


A system that transfers both energy and matter across boundaries


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Coastal environments resources »