Computer Science A Level QUiz

Which special-purpose register is in the Control unit?
Current Instruction Register
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Where do calculations get carried out?
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Where is the fetched data from memory temporarily held?
Memory Data Register
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Where is the instruction from the MDR copied to?
Current instruction register
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Where is the CIR
Control Unit
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Purpose of control unit
Control and coordinates the activities of the CPU
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Does the Control unit direct the flow of data between the CPU and other devices
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What is a bus?
Set of parallel wires connecting two or more components of a computer
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How many busses are used to connect the Processor to memory?
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When the processor uses the Address bus, what is it trying to do?
Access a certain part of memory
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What does the data bus do
Transmit data between CPU and memory
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Control signals are sent through what?
Control bus
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What is the system bus
Collection of Control, Data and address buses
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The system bus connects the CPU, memory and ___.
input/output controllers
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The data travels in both directions in the ____ and ____ buses.
Control and Data
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The Address bus connects
Processor and Memory
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Why do we need the control bus?
Data and address buses are shared between all components of system. Control bus makes sure there is no conflict.
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Purpose of control bus
Transmit command, timing and specific status information between components
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What is NOT a control line
Bus emit
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What is the Clock control line for?
synchronising operations
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What are words??
A unit of memory handled by the processor
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Do Words have memory addresses
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What is used to transmit the memory address of a word
The address bus
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Are all words the same size
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What is the purpose of the ALU
perform arithmetic and logical operations on data
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What are registers?
Special, super-fast memory cells
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What are registers used for
Arithmetic, logic, or shift operations (replace accumulator)
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How many registers do Computers normally have?
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What is the accumulator
A single general purpose register
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what does FDE stand for
Fetch, Decode, Execute
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What does the system clock do?
Switches between 0 and 1 several million times a second, generating signals to synchronise the CPU
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When does each CPU operation begin?
When the clock changes from 0 to 1
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Can CPU operations perform faster than the clock?
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Can some activities take longer than 1 clock cycle?
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What is a core?
Basically a single processor that can run the FDE cycle
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Will 2 cores be double the speed of 1 core
No - software cannot take full advantage
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What is Cache
Very expensive, fast memory in RAM
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What is cache used for
Saving recently fetched instructions, in case they get needed again
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Level 1 Cache
fastest, but smallest
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In Level 1 Cache....
Memory is split into instruction cache and data cache, so that instructions and associated data can be fetch simultaneously
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In Level 2/3 Cache...
it is used for prefetch, loading instructions and data from RAM
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In Level 3 Cache....
it is used in multi-processing and shared between cores
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What is a thread?
A series of instructions that can be run by one core
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What is in-built redundancy
Refers to cores having duplicated components so they can run multiple threads
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What is parrallel processing
When several cores work at the same time
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What is multitasking?
When Programs and threads are in execution together, but are actually run in turn, to give the illusion of parallel processing
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what is Multiprocessing?
programs run at the same time on different cores
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What is multi threading/parallel processing
A single problem being broken down into multiple that are run at the same time on different cores
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What is pipelining?
Technique used by processors to improve performance
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how does pipelining work?
Tries to avoid idle components. Whilst the ALU is doing operations, the next instruction is being fetched.
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What is the buffer in pipelining used for?
Where the fetched instructions are stored, until the ALU is finished
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Pipelining can be divided into:
Instruction and arithmetic pipelines
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The instruction pipeline consists of stages in which:
an instruction is moved through the processor
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Does the width of the address bus dictate the max capacity of system memory
Yes. The size of memory is limited by the amount of addresses the bus can pass
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Does the width of the data bus dictate the largest amount of data in a word?
Yes. It is the largest amount of data that can be transferred
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What is the principle idea of Von Neumann Architecture
Details the use of a processor, where a shared memory and bus get used for data AND instructions
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What is the stored program concept?
Machine code instructions are fetched from memory one at a time, decoded and executed in the processor.
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In the Von Neumann machine, what statement is not true:
The Computer uses different word lengths
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What is the main concept behind Harvard architecture?
There is physically separate memories for data and instructions
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Where is Harvard architecture mainly used?
Digital signal processing (dsp) systems. (working with audio waves etc.)
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In Harvard arch, Can the memories have different characteristics like word size etc.
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Why can Harvard Arch be faster?
Memories dont have to compete for the same buses
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Contempary processor architecture is ____
The use of both Harvard and Nuemann ideas
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In contemporary processor architecture, how is cache organised?
Divided into instruction and data cache
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CISC stands for
Complex instruction set computers
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CISC is ____ than RISC
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a single assembly line equates to a large number of sub routines
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Complex instructions are built into the hardware
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In CISC the compiler has to do ____ work to translate a high level statement to machine
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Because the code is short litttle ___ is required
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In CISC, ____ instructions are left unused
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RISC stands for
Reduced instruction set computer
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In RISC each instruction is short and takes only ______
One clock cycle
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Co-processor systems have an extra-processor to
supplement the primary processor
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A GPU is good at rendering images, as ____
It has massively parallel architecture
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Barcodes are useful for
Tracking objects
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1D Barcodes refer to
Linear codes
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2D Bar codes refer to
Quick Response Codes
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2D barcodes store ___ data than 1D
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Pen-type readers are _____
Dragged across the barcode
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Pentype readers are ____ durable
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Laser scanners are very _____
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What is application software?
End-user programs that perform specific tasks
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What is systems software?
Programs that allow interaction between user, User-end programs and hardware
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Analysis is the process of
defining a problem
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What is black box testing also known as?
functional testing
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What does black box testing mean?
testing the program independently of the code, focusing on its specification
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What does white box (structural testing) refer to?
testing the code logic and program structure, rather than function
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What is Alpha testing?
Testing carried out by in-house team, ensuring program provides functionality
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Beta testing is...
the process of giving the product to possible users to find bugs
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Implementation is....
The process of coding the program
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Evaluation is..
The measurement of usability, effectiveness and maintainability
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A critical review of a program months after release is called ___
a post-implementation review
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The waterfall model describes a development process, where____
each development stage is completed one after another
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Does the waterfall model allow for much user-input after the start of the process?
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Spiral models solve problems in ___ steps
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In Spiral models one whole ______ is completed for each prototype
Design cycle
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Spiral models are used for _____ projects
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Agile development allows stages to be completed in a non____ sequence
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Agile modelling allows
Fast feedback from users
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Extreme programming improves
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Rapid application development is used
to avoid changing technology and demand making product useless
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Waterfall cycle is useful in
very small projects that need supervison
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Spiral and agile approaches are
better than waterfall in terms of feed back
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EP and RAD are good when
you dont want to get bogged down by feedback
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What is not an algorithm type
Developing consciousness
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What is not an advantage of OOP?
OOP is faster to process, as data structures take up less space in cache
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Now, Each assembly language instruction translates into ___ machine code instruction(s)
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The ____ translates an assembly language program into machine code
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What does ADD refer to?
Add the contents of the memory address to the accumulator
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What does STA refer to?
Stores value from Accumulator in memory address
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What does BRZ refer to
Branches if accumulator == 0
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What does HLT refer to?
Stops execution of program
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What is immediate addressing?
Where the operand is the actual value to be operated on
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What is direct addressing?
Where the operand contains the memory address of the value being operated on
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What is CD-ROM
a read only disk
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What is CD-R?
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What is CD-rw
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Why is compression helpful (most important reason)
Means files take less time to transfer
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Lossy compression...
Involves removing unnecessary data
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Lossless compression...
retains all information, but records repeating patterns in data
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MP3 files use ____ compression
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WAV files use ____ compression
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The process of recording repeating patterns in pixels of an image is ____
Run Length Encoding
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Dictionary based compression uses dictionaries to....
Store numerical values in place of words
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Vernam Cipher uses a key that is ______
Equal or larger in size than the plain text
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Vernam Cipher is ____ to solve
near impossible
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the Vernam Cipher uses ___ gates
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In order to be impossible to crack, a Vernam Cipher key must be ___
truly random
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Symetric encryption uses ___ ______ key to encrypt and decrypt data
the same
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In Asymmetric encryption, plain text is encoded by the _____ public key
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A hash value is calculated using _____
The message data
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Hash functions are ____
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Digital signatures are created using
Hash values
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the recipient of a message checks the signature by ____
creating a hash total of the message and comparing it to the signature
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Digital Certificates verify
trustworthiness of sender
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Digital Certificates operate
during the transport layer
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A husband and wife is a...
one-to-one relationship
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A Mother and Child is a
one-to-many relationship
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A student and lesson is a
many-to-many relationship
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An entity is
a category of thing where data is to be recorded
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A flatfile database ______
Consists of one file
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A flat file database is not good at
Storing info on more than one entity
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Entities have different properties called....
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Entities are uniquely identified using ____
A primary key
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A primary key
is unique
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Secondary keys are used ____
To help index entities and search the database
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In relational databases,
a separate table is created for each entity
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A foreign key....
is the attribute that creates a link between two tables
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A foreign key is the
primary key from an entity in another table
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Composite keys are
Primary keys made from multiple attributes
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Referential integrity describes
The process of ensuring a referenced foreign key still exists
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A record is ____
One row of the table
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An index of ______ is maintained by the database software
Primary keys
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Normalisation is _____
The process used to design the best possible relational databse
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1NF describes a database where....
There are no repeating attributes and attributes aren't grouped
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A link table is used for
many-to-many relationships
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2NF requires the table to be in 1NF and...
contains attributes full dependent on the whole key
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A table is in 3NF
if it has no non-key attributes
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Normalisation is important, as....
It removes data redundancy
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Normalised tables are faster to search through, as...
They are smaller and have less fields
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The internet is a network of _____
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The world wide web is
A collection of web pages stored on computers connected to the internet
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Each continent is connected to the internet through ____
transcontinental leased lines
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A uniform resource locator stores _____
the address of a resource on the internet
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ISPs refer to
Internet Service Providers
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Internet Registrars...
Hold records of all existing website names and allow individuals to purchase domains
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Internet Registries...
The five global organisations with worldwide databases that hold records of all the domain names currently issued
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Internet registries are governed by the...
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A _____ identifies the area of domain that a resource resides in
domain name
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Domain names are structured in a hierarchy dictated by the rules of the
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The domain system stops people in another country having access to redundant domain names, as....
it allows different TLD's to be split into different servers
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Each domain name has ______ equivalent IP address(es)
one or more
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the ___ catalogues all the domain names and IP addresses
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When a webpage is requested using URL, the browser uses the ____ to fetch the IP from the DNS
domain name
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A fully qualified domain name includes...
the host server name
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An IP address is a unique address assigned to...
Network devices
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WAN relies on
Third party carriers or connections
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Consists of devices on a single site or building
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An advantage of bus topology...
inexpensive to install, as it require less hardware
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An advantage of star topology...
if one cable fails, the rest of the network is safe
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Physical topology describes...
its actual design layout
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Logical topology describes...
The shape of the path the data travels in
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WIFI is a ____ area resource technology
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WIFI connects your device to the internet via a:
Wireless Network Access Point
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To connect to a wireless network, a computer needs a...
wireless network adaptor
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The combination of computer and interface is called...
A station
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All stations share a single _____ that they constantly pick up transmissions from
radio frequency communication channel
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Mesh networks describe a system where...
each node has a connection to every other node
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Circuit switching describes a process, where
a direct link is created between devices for the duration of communication
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Packet switching describes a process where
data is communicated along a network, on which other devices are also using to communicate
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Data packets are...
manageable chunks of data that make up a larger data item being communicated
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Every data packet contains a ____ and _____
header and payload
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Packets are sent
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act as a traversal point for packets
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Routers read the ____ of the recipient, so they can choose the fastest route to send the packet
Ip address
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In order to for a packet to use a router for hopping, the networks must...
Share the same protocol
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_____ are used to transfer packets between Networks using different protocols
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Gateways work by replacing the ___ data of the packet
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Every device capable of being on a network must have a ___
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Each NIC has a unique ____
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A protocol is ______
a set of rules defining methods of data communication
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HTTP and TCP/IP are forms of ______
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TCP/IP stack is a set of protocols that work as ___ layers
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Which is not a layer in the TCP/IP stack?
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As a packet moves down the TCP/IP stack, protocols _____ the data
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As a packet moves back up the four TCP/IP layers, the data gets _____
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Application layer ....
Sits at the top of the stack ad uses protocols relating to the application being used (browser etc.)
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Transport layer
establishes an end-to-end connection with the recipient
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The Transport layer...
splits data into packets, labelled with packet number, num of packets and target port.
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The Network layer...
adds the source and destination IP addresses
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A socket is made of....
an IP and port number
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a socket specifies
which device the packet must be sent to and the application being used
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The link layer
adds the MAC addresses of the sender's and recipient's NIC
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When the packet arrives at a destination the TCP/IP layer ...
is reversed
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_______ act as a virtual post office for incoming and outgoing emails
a mail server
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POP3 is responsible for
retrieving emails from a mail server
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In POP3, when the mail has been transferred to your computer, the server___
deletes the mail
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IMAP ______
keeps all mail on the server
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Simple mail transfer protocol is used to ___
transfer emails from one server to another
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search engines
are systems that locate resources on the internet
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Web crawlers are used to _____
build an index of web pages on the internet
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on the www, ____ are used to rank pages in a lsit of relevance
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Key words and phrases in web pages are used by search engines to
match with a user's search terms
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_____ are a list of keywords/phrases built into web pages
meta tags
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Google's algorithm ranks pages
based on the amount of visits and the rank of the site they were visiting from
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integers are ______ data structures
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strings are ________ data structures
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queues are _________ data structures
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Queues are
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Dynamic memory....
can grow/shrink in size
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dynamic memory is stored in memory in a portion called...
the heap
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dynamic memory can cause a _______ if it gets too big
overflow error
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static structures ____ change their size in memory
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static structures must have their ____ determined in advance
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In linked list, each item contains two elements: one for the data, and one ______
pointing to the next item in the list
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Stacks are
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stacks and queues can be ______
static and dynamic
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attempting to take an item out an empty stack will cause ____
underflow errors
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one use of a stack is for holding data on active subroutines. This is called ____
the call stack
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what is the call stack not responsible for?
holding data from the last call stack
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hash tables are used to ____
create indexes of where data is stored
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hash tables ____
use algorithms to turn key fields into addresses
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a collision is where....
a hash gives the same address twice
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a hash table is a____
way of storing items so they can be quickly found
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to help collisions is hashing, you can ____
make table larger/ non-divisible by skip
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Where do calculations get carried out?



Card 3


Where is the fetched data from memory temporarily held?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Where is the instruction from the MDR copied to?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Where is the CIR


Preview of the front of card 5
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