Confined Spaces

  • Created by: Blodwyn
  • Created on: 05-08-17 14:46
Define the term 'Confined Space'
Any places including any chamber, tank, vat, silo, pit, trench, pipe, sewer, flue, well or other similar space in which of virtue of its enclosed nature, there arises a reasonably foreseeable specified risk
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What is the purpose of The Confined Spaces Regulations 1997
The Regulations lay down the legal requirements for work in confined spaces.
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List the 3 reasons which would mean the law allows someone at work to enter a confined space to carry out work
It is not reasonably practicable to achieve that purpose without such activity, In accordance with a SSW which in relation to any relevant specified risks renders that work safe, There have been prepared suitable & sufficient arrangements
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Define the term 'Specified Risk'
Fire or Explosion, Loss of consciousness from an increase in body temperature, Loss of consciousness or asphyxiation arising from gas, fume, vapour or lack of oxygen, Drowning from increased levels of liquid, Asphyxiation from free-flowing solid
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Define the term 'Free Flowing Solid'
Any substance consisting of solid particles and which is of, or is capable of being in, a flowing or running consistancy and includes flour, grain, sugar, sand or other similar materials
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List 3 examples of Confined Spaces
Fire or explosion during work in a tank previously storing flammable liquid, Heat stress while welding in a storage vessel, Drowning in a water tank which is inadvertently filled during repair work, Asphyxiation in silo & being buried in grain
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List 3 factors to be considered when assessing risk of working in a confined space
Need for safe access, Access & Egress, Removal of Contaminants
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List 2 considerations when assessing the 'need for safe access' when assessing the risk of working in a confined space
Is there a need to enter the confined space at all, Possibility of carrying out some of the work outside of the confined space
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When assessing 'Access & Egress' list 4 factors that would allow someone to enter and remain in a confined space
Wearing approved breathing apparatus if dangerous fumes are present or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere, Authorised to enter by a responsible person, Wearing a belt or harness with retrieval line securely attached. Person watching outside.
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How should a harness be securely attached?
The harness should be fitted with a retrieval line securely attached. The other end of the line must be attached to a mechanical device or a fixed point outside the permit space. A device must be able to retrieve someone vertically more than 5 feet
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When assessing 'Access & Egress' list 5 ways a person could enter and work in a confined space without a breathing apparatus
Steps taken to avoid ingress of dangerous fumes, Sludge liable to give off dangerous fumes have been removed, Space contains no material liable to give off fumes, Space has been ventilated & tested for fumes, Supply of air adequate for respiration
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Explain what is meant by removal of contaminants
It is standard to purge pipelines & tanks with inert gas normally nitrogen to remove contaminants prior to entry. For sewers it may be enough to lift manhole lids to allow for lighter than air gases to escape. Ongoing monitoring during work.
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List 3 arrangements ensuring safety in differing atmospheres that may be encountered
Atmosphere is and will remain safe including continuous monitoring, Suitable respiratory equipment available, Any work is not likely to cause a fire or explosion.
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List 3 atmospheres that monitoring will check for
Oxygen content, Presence of flammable / explosive atmosphere, presence of toxic contamination
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List the 2 types of ventilation that may be used during work in confined spaces
Natural Ventilation & Forced Ventilation
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Explain where Natural Ventilation would be used
Suitable in limited cases where sufficient openings are available
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Explain 3 types of forced ventilation
Use of compressed air, Use of a blower fan & trunking, Use of an exhaust fan or ejector and trunking
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Where entry is only permitted where a breathing apparatus is worn, list 4 factors to consider with regard to safety in a confined space of a BA user
Considerable skill & training of BA users, Cumbersome nature of equipment, Use of BA can be physically demanding, Endurance is limited unless airlines are used
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List the 4 factors to be considered when assessing whether or not breathing apparatus is required
Effectiveness of isolation, Amount of sludge left after cleaning, Results of atmospheric testing, Nature of the plant
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List 4 types of people who require effective training
Supervisors, People likely to work in confined spaces, People likely to act as attendants, Members of rescue teams
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List 5 things training must be include
Use of equipment provided, checking procedures when donning apparatus, Dealing with malfunctions & failures of equipment, Works emergency procedures, Artificial Resuscitation
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When must testing of the atmosphere be carried out?
It must be carried out before entry is allowed
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List 3 safety features the tester must comply with when entering to carry out tests
Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness and Line, Resuscitation Equipment must be ready for immediate use
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When assessing the risk associated with entry into and work being carried out in a confined space, it is necessary to consider who may be put at risk. List 5 issues to address when doing this
Will there be lone workers or a number of people, What work is being carried out, How experienced are the workers, Has training been received, Do any of them suffer from medical conditions
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When assessing risks, list 4 areas to consider
Persons at Risk, Task, Materials & Equipment
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What is the purpose of assessing the task?
The assessment should consider whether the tasks to be carried out will increase the risks to the persons working in the confined space.
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What is the purpose of assessing the Materials?
It is necessary to consider what materials will be used. Cleaning with solvents or carrying out painting operations could produce an explosive atmosphere as well as causing respiratory problems. The use of powders could produce large amounts of dust.
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What is the purpose of assessing the Equipment?
work equipment should be subject to assessment to determine if there a likelihood of any work equipment increasing the risk of harm
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List 4 types of safeguards
Access / Egress, Ventilation, Avoidance of Ignition Sources, PPE / BA
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Explain the purpose of Access / Egress as a safeguard
This includes suitable means of getting in and getting out, particularly in the case of an emergency. Access or Egress may be by means of ladders, scaffold, tripods or harnesses.
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Explain the intention of assessing the effectiveness of ventilation
If ventilation is provided, is it doing the job
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List 2 elements to consider in the avoidance of ignition sources
Is all equipment in good condition, well maintained and properly used, Is intrinsically safe equipment & lighting used where there is a possibility of a flammable atmosphere
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Explain the intention of assessing PPE / BA
To check that the PPE and any BA used is suitable for the task, kept in good condition and used properly by trained workers
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The only way in which it is possible to ensure a SSW is by using a permit to work so this is a mandatory requirement. List 5 key precautions to be included in the permit to work
Isolation of the confined spaces, Adequate ventilation, Absence of substances likely to give off fumes, Specified working period, Rescue & resuscitation arrangements
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The first and most important step is the assessment of the situation by a responsible person, list 5 elements to consider during the assessment
Is entry necessary, work needing to be done, methods of working, hazards from neighbouring plant, steps necessary to make the job safe
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List 3 safe isolation steps
All residual energy reserves must be exhausted, Liquid or free-flowing solids should be isolated using flange blanks or blinds, All moving parts must be stopped in a safe position
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List the 5 types of cleaning methods
Cleaning & Purging, Steam Cleaning, Partial Filling with water and boiling, Washing with hot or cold water, Use of solvents or neutralizing agents
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Breathing Apparatus, life-lines, signal equipment and other equipment used must be inspected monthly and after use. A competent person must carry out the checks, list 6 details that must be entered in a register
Name of the occupier of the place of work, Address of the workplace, particulars of the type of apparatus, Date of examination and by whom carried it out, Condition of the apparatus, belt or rope and any defects found at the examination
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List 5 items of equipment that must be readily available for emergencies
BA Sets, Resuscitators, Means of summoning help, Life-Lines, Oxygen for resuscitation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the purpose of The Confined Spaces Regulations 1997


The Regulations lay down the legal requirements for work in confined spaces.

Card 3


List the 3 reasons which would mean the law allows someone at work to enter a confined space to carry out work


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Define the term 'Specified Risk'


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define the term 'Free Flowing Solid'


Preview of the front of card 5
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