• Created by: hadar
  • Created on: 08-02-18 13:44
What is the normal blood-glucose range?
4mmol/L to 11mmol/L
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What are the symptoms of diabetes?
thirst, polyuria, weight loss, tiredness
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What are the signs of diabetes?
dry mouth, weight loss, glycosuria, hyperglycaemia
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What tests are used to diagnose diabetes?
1)Typical symptoms and high RANDOM blood glucose 2)Fasting blood glucose >7mmol/l 75g OGTT 3)HbA1c; 48 mmol/mol (6.5%)
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What is borderline diabetes
1)Impaired fasting glucose: 6-7mmol/l 2)Impaired glucose tolerance: two-hour glucose levels of 7.8 -11.0 mmol/l, 140 to 199 mg/dl on the 75-g oral GTT
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What investigations would you do in diabetes?
1)HbA1c 2)renal function 3)liver function 4)lipids 5)thyroid function
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What are the different types of diabetes? (8)
1.Type 1: insulin dependent 2.LADA latent autoimmune diabetes in adults 3.Type 2 4.Pancreatic disorders 5.Drug induced 6.Endocrine disorders 7.Ethnic variants of diabetes 8.Genetic syndromes
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What is type 1 diabetes?
Autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing islet beta cells Insulin deficient: insulin dependent Usually young, but can be ANY age Autoantibody tests: ICA, IA2, GAD Often other endocrine disorders in patient or family
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What is LADA?
Presents often as ‘type 2’ diabetes- Autoantibodies: GAD, ICA, tTG, TPO- Progressive deterioration in control, increasing therapy
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What is type2 diabetes?
Insulin resistant/deficient Not absolutely insulin dependent Strong family history Often obese or overweight Usually hypertensive and hyperlipidaemic
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Often obese, ethnic minority Ketosis when physically stressed with intercurrent illness Temporarily requites insulin Not insulin dependent
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What disorders can cause diabetes secondary to pancreatic disorders?
Chronic or acute pancreatitis Calcific, tropical pancreatitis Pancreatectomy Pancreatic cancer Cystic fibrosis Haemochromatosis
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What drugs can cause drug induced diabetes?
1) diuretics 2) steroids 3) antipsychotics e.g. olanzapine 4) psychiatric drugs- weight gain- treatment emergent diabetes seen in newer atypical antipsychotic treatment
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What endocrine disorders can cause diabetes?
1) acromegaly 2) cushing syndrome 3) Phaeochromocytoma
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What is ethnic variant diabetes?
J type diabetes: ‘Jamaican’ diabetes, Afro-Caribbeans Flatbush diabetes: US Afro-Americans MRDM: malnutrition- related diabetes, tropical diabetes Chronic calcific pancreatitis: secondary diabetes Z type diabetes
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Describe J type jamaican diabetes
Ketosis prone Not particularly obese On and off insulin therapy Variable insulin requirements Also called Flatbush diabetes
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What genetic syndromes can cause diabetes?
1) friedreich's ataxia 2) dystrophia myotonica
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What is gestational diabetes?
Diabetes appears during pregnancy Diabetes resolves after pregnancy At risk of diabetes in later pregnancy At risk of diabetes in future Pregnancy in the known diabetic case Diabetes arising or diagnosed in pregnancy
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What is MODY? (Maturity onset diabetes in the young: Mason diabetes, Tattersall & Fajans)
Autosomal dominant pattern 1-2% of diabetic cases Onset under 25 Insulin not required initially Glucokinase, HNF 1A, HNF 4A
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Card 2


What are the symptoms of diabetes?


thirst, polyuria, weight loss, tiredness

Card 3


What are the signs of diabetes?


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Card 4


What tests are used to diagnose diabetes?


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Card 5


What is borderline diabetes


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