Policy in Education Flashcards

Define the Tripartite System (1944)...
Introduced three new types of schools: Grammar, Secondary Modern and Technical. Children would take and 11+ exam, those who passed would enter the Grammar schools, and those who failed the other two. Technical schools were of very little number.
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Give some criticisms of the Tri-partite system...
Culturally biased to the middle class; 'late developers' penalized; 'intelligence' impossible to measure; the number of children who passed depended on the number of places; Grammar schools for the middle class and Moderns for the working class.
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What did the 1870 Education Act do?
Ensured that all children went to school up until the age of ten to create a more skilled workforce. Previously, only the wealthy could educate their children through private tutoring and fee schools.
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What is Comprehensive Education?
A labour initiative which introduced catchment areas. All children in the same catchment area would attend the same school despite wealth or ability. It ensured that there was no selection process for the entry of schools.
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Why was Comprehensive Education introduced?
To remove the inequalities of the Tri-partite system; to remove the stigma of academic failure; to increase social mobility and class divides; to end selection via the 11+.
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What did Comprehensive Education Acheive?
Removed some inequalities of the Tri-partite system; More pupils had the oppertunity to gain qualifications; Pass rates at GCSE and A level have risen; Brighter pupils are not held back; Comprehensives have done all they can to reduce inequality.
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Give some criticisms of Comprehensive Education?
Grammar schools still exist and private education; Increased competition between schools; 'Dumbed down' education - bright pupils 'held back'; Catchment areas predominantly middle class / working class; Inequality under one roof.
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Name aspects of the 1988 Education Reform Act...
National Curriculum; National assessment through SATs; Schools could 'opt out' of LEA and become grant maintained; Open enrollment; Formula Funding; Vocational education.
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Name aspects of the 1993 Education Act...
Colleges and Further Education taken from LEA control; School Curriculum and Assessment Authority created to oversee the examination system; The government had the power to take over failing schools.
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State some other changes that occurred under the Conservative Government.
Legal publishing of League Tables; Introduction of OFSTED; Schools allowed to specialize.
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What did the Conservatives do to education?
They marketed it and created a parentocracy, ensuring competition between schools. They hope that this would drive standards up.
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Why was the National Curriculum introduced?
Ensured that Results from schools could be compared; Need to define key subject areas that pupils had to know; Remove curriculum from control of LEAs; Exclusion of 'subversive' subjects - sociology!; Would not disadvantage children moving schools.
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How could you criticize the National Curriculum?
Doesn't have to be taught in dependent schools or Scotland; minority subjects forced to compete with each other for time; strongly academic in content; Political interference.
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How would you criticize national testing?
Doesn't consider socio-economic makeup; Can deem children failures before they are fully educated; Not all subjects are covered in the tests.
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How would you criticize league tables?
Unfair to compare schools with different socio-economic make-up; Statistics not always accurate (can be manipulated and exams can be remarked).
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How did these changes introduce parental choice?
New types of schools (Grant mantained, Technology college); League tablesgave parents ideas on performance; Open enrollment - send kids to schools outside catchment areas; 'Opt out' decision given to parents.
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How did these changes introduce Competition?
Open Enrollment / funding formula (Compete for pupils - education market); National testing and League tables (performance of school measured); New types of schools.
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How has LEA control of schools been weakened?
Schools could 'opt out'; Local Management of Schools - gave headmasters control; Reducing the proportion of Governors from LEA; Further Ed out of their control; TECs compete with LEAs; Schools independent of LEAs.
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How would you criticize these changes in education?
League Tables don't take the schools intake into account; Vicious cycle for failing schools;LEA schools in a poor position with less funding; Open enrollment not always the case; Middle class parents better equipped to play the system; CTC selection.
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Explain the Education Market...
The Education market has been created by the systems of open enrollment, league tables and funding formula. This transforms some schools into 'stars' and others to 'sinks'. Achieving bad results will cause a donward spiral.
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How had vocationalism taken hold in schools?
School Industry links; 'Young enterprise' - students creating small scale business; Growth of Business studies; Vocational subjects and qualifications GNVQs; Work Experience; Technology Colleges and CTCs place high value on science and technology.
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Give some examples of vocational training initiatives and training...
Youth Training Scheme; Employment Training; City Technology Colleges; General National Vocational Qualifications; National Vocational Qualifications; The Technical & Vocational Educational Education Initiative.
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Give some Criticisms of Vocational education...
Marxists believe that it is an attempt to blame the education system for the failure of British businesses; Manipulates unemployment rates; Doesn't create jobs; Reinforced traditional gender divisions.
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What is the basis to Labor policy?
Education is the key to Economic Success - need for people to develop skills; Need for basic literacy and numeracy skills; Concerns that some groups are not succeeding in education.
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How did they change Conservative policy?
Assisted Places Scheme abolished; Grant Maintained Status ended.
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What did they keep the same with Conservative Policy?
League Tables; School Inspections; Vocational Education; Power to take over failing Schools; National Curriculum; Testing; Local Management of schools; Formula Funding.
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Give some new Labor Policies...
Reducing Primary class size; Literacy and Numeracy hours in all schools; Compensatory education; EMA; Parents in area of Grammar schools to hold a vote to change to Comprehensive; Students in higher ed pay part of course fees; Academies introduced.
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How could Labor Policies be Criticized?
Little change from conservatives - marxists say that competition reproduces class inequality; Strong focus on standards, testing and control rather than the individual; confused - assisting disadvantaged but marketisation?
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What is Compensatory Education?
Additional education to support failing groups (working class, some ethnic minorities) and improve their opportunities. Can address both cultural and material deprivation.
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Give some examples of Compensatory Education...
Operation Headstart (US - 'War on Poverty'); Educational Priority Areas (pre-school years and literacy);Teaching ESL and Section 11 funding.
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Gives some examples of Labor Compensatory schemes...
After School, weekend and holiday support schemes; Education Action Zones(low-income areas); EMA (Stay in education post-16); Saturday schools.
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How does Compensatory education fail?
Few and limited in scope; 'Operation Headstart' in the US - no long-term positive change; Doesn't attack problems in the school system or wider society; impression that something in being done; doesn't go far enough; undermines competition.
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How does compensatory education succeed?
ESL programmes were partially responsible for the improved attainment of Asians;
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What percentage of children go to private schools?
7%, in post-16 education this rises to 18% in males and 15% in females.
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What is the relationship between private school and university?
A higher proportion of private school children go to university than state sector children. Especially universities such as Cambridge and Oxford.
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Why does private education exist?
First form of education to develop in Britain; Free Market - individuals have the right to spend their money as they wish; Marxists view Private education as maintaining and reproducing class divides.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Give some criticisms of the Tri-partite system...


Culturally biased to the middle class; 'late developers' penalized; 'intelligence' impossible to measure; the number of children who passed depended on the number of places; Grammar schools for the middle class and Moderns for the working class.

Card 3


What did the 1870 Education Act do?


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Card 4


What is Comprehensive Education?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why was Comprehensive Education introduced?


Preview of the front of card 5
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