English Language Theorists

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  • Created by: Becky0701
  • Created on: 26-03-17 20:39
Christine Howe
-Men have stratagies for gaining power. -Men are much more likely to respond to what is being said, they are keen to put their views across. -Women are more active listeners and use minor interuptions such as 'uh huh' and 'oh really'.
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Pilkington
-Said that women were more colaberative in all-women talk than men were in all-men talk. -He concluded his study in a bakery that women mainly aimed for more politeness stratigies in conversation with other women only.
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William O'Barr & Bowman Atkins
-They looked at 'powerless' language which studied that there isn't much different between male and female language. -Female lawyers were assertive, interruptive and everything Pilkington argues for males. -Found weaknesses of both sexes.
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Robin Lakoff
-She created a set of female language. -Females hedge. -Women use politer forms of sentences. -They use empty adjectives eg adorable. -They use modal verbs eg should. -Overuse qualifiers eg "I think that..."
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Pamela Fishman
-The dominance model which found that tag questions are used more by women. -Men use much more dominant speech as they speak more, interrupt and hold the floor along with initiating and shifting topics.
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Jenny Cheshire
-She looked at the grammatical variations of young children. -She noticed that boys used non-standard forms more frequently than girls did. -She concluded that "variation is controlled by both social and linguistic features".
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Jennifer Coates
-She looked at all-female conversation and builds on Tannens ideas. -House talk, is the discussion of the female role as an occupation. -Bitching, it is the exchanging of emotions expressing anger and their complaints. Chatting, exchanging anger.
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Deborah Cameron
-She believes that our language is not shaped by our biology, but speakers themselves. -It is structured by our gendered identities and how we are treated as a specific gender.
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Janet Hyde
-She suggests that that there are actually more similarities between male and female speech. -She believes differences are due to factors such as age, class, education and occupation.
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Geoffrey Beattie
-Claims to have recorded discussions and found that men interrupt more but only by a small margin, this makes us question Zimmerman and Wests study.
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Don Zimmerman & Candace West
-The dominance theory which looked at interruptions and overlaps. -The majority of the interruptions were made by men with 44/46. -They found that same-sex conversations were distributed fairly evenly.
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Labov
-An island off the south cape cod in new England. It is isolated, accessable only by boat and flying. -Lavov noted how they spoke different to the other places like New York. -Therefore they created their 'own language'.
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Ignacio Martinez
-Teenagers regularly use multiple negation and are more direct because they don't worry about threatening face.
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Vivian De Klerk
-Studied teenagers and their use of slang. -Found that boys understood more slang and thought they were socially acceptable than girls. -The study concludes with girls being more socailly mature than boys. -Also saw a socail pressure act on teens.
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Anna-Brita Stemstrom
-She investigated the language used by teenagers and noticed how they used pragmatic markers. (Redirecting the flow of a conversation without changing the meaning, eg 'oh' or 'you know'.)
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Penelope Eckert
-She argues thar people tend to speak like their friends, those who share social practices togather, rather than those who share the same identities with gender and social class.
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John Swales
-Argued the idea of a discourse community which consists of people who share a common set of goals, use specialist lexis and discourse and posses a required level of knowledge to be considered eligable to participate in the community.
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Drew & Heritage
-Suggest that people in the same community share inferential frameworks with each other, which shares the idea of thinking, communicating and behaving. -They also suggest that there are heirarchies of power within organisations.
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Koester
-Employees support eachother through phonetic talk, eg "great!" and "alright?". -He believes that workers need to establish interpersonal relationships and have interactions that are not just work related procedures.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

-Said that women were more colaberative in all-women talk than men were in all-men talk. -He concluded his study in a bakery that women mainly aimed for more politeness stratigies in conversation with other women only.

Back

Pilkington

Card 3

Front

-They looked at 'powerless' language which studied that there isn't much different between male and female language. -Female lawyers were assertive, interruptive and everything Pilkington argues for males. -Found weaknesses of both sexes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

-She created a set of female language. -Females hedge. -Women use politer forms of sentences. -They use empty adjectives eg adorable. -They use modal verbs eg should. -Overuse qualifiers eg "I think that..."

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

-The dominance model which found that tag questions are used more by women. -Men use much more dominant speech as they speak more, interrupt and hold the floor along with initiating and shifting topics.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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