What can proteins be in the body?
Structural components of tissue, such as muscle. Hormones. Antibodies. Catalysts.
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How is the function of a protein specified?
By its shape.
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What two things can happen to a substrate in a enzyme reaction?
The substrate can be held in the active site and either be connected to another molecule or broken down.
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What can enzymes do?
Build large molecules from smaller ones eg/ building starch from glucose molecules. Change one molecule into another one, eg/convert one type of sugar into another. Break down large molecules into smaller ones, eg.all the digestive enzymes do this.
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Name factors affecting enzymes and tell me how they affect enzyme activity.
Temperature- If a temperature is too extreme for a particular enzyme the enzyme will be denatured and will not be able to carry out its function anymore. pH- if the pH in an area is too acidic or alkaline, the enzyme will become denatured.
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How are digestive enzymes produced. How do they work outside cells?
Digestive enzymes are produced by specialized cells in glands and in the lining of the gut. They pass out body cells into the cavity of the digestive system and come into contact with food molecules!
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What is digestion?
The breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones.
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What does Amylase catalyze, and where is it produced?
Amylase catalyses the digestion of starch into sugars in the small intestine and mouth. This is because it a carbohydrase enzyme. Amylase is produced in the pancreas, small intestine and salivary glands.
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What does protease do, and where is it produced?
Protease catalyses the breakdown of proteins into amine acids. Protease is produced in the pancreas, stomach and small intestine.
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What does Lipase do and where is it produced?
Lipase catalyses the breakdown of lipids (fats and oils) to fatty acids and glycerol. Lipase is produced by the small intestine and the pancreas.
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What is the function of bile? Where is it stored?
Bile is stored in the gall bladder. It is alkaline and is squirted into the small intestine where is neutralises any stomach acid- this means the small intestine is slightly alkaline.
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What sort of conditions do Amylase and Lipase work at?
Slightly alkaline conditions.
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What pH does protease work at?
Protease works at an acidic pH.
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How do glands create acidic conditions for protease to work out.
Glands in the stomach wall produce hydrochloric acid to create very acidic conditions.
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What are the advantages of biological washing detergents?
They contain protease and lipase enzymes that digest food stains. They work at lower temperatures than ordinary washing powders. This saves energy and money spent on electricity.
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How can proteases be used in baby foods?
They can used to pre-digest proteins in baby foods that babies can't digest themselves.
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What enzyme is used convert glucose to fructose syrup?
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What are the advantages of fructose syrup?
Fructose is much sweeter so less in needed in foods. This makes food less fattening, and also preserves resources.
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In industry, what are the advantages and disadvantages of enzymes?
They can catalyse reactions at normal temperatures and pressures, so that less expensive equipment is needed and energy and money is saved. However, industrial enzymes are costly to produce.
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Name four advantages of using enzymes.
Enzymes in biological washing powders are effective at removing stains such as blood, grass and gravy. Enzymes can reduce costs of equipment and in energy in industry by lowering temperatures. Enzymes can be used for medical diagnosis.
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What are the disadvantages of using enzymes?
Enzymes can enter waterways via sewage system. Enzymes denature at high temperatures needed to kill pathogens in the washing. Some fabrics such as wool are digested by proteases.
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Why do biological washing powders work more efficiently than non-biological powders?
The enzymes speed up the digestion of stains from food, blood and grass, plus lower temperatures can be used in washing machines.
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How can enzymes cause allergic reactions?
If misused, people may have allergic reactions to enzymes on their skin; the enzymes are enclosed in capsules in dry powder. Once the powder is dissolved, hands should not be placed in water.
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Card 2


How is the function of a protein specified?


By its shape.

Card 3


What two things can happen to a substrate in a enzyme reaction?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What can enzymes do?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Name factors affecting enzymes and tell me how they affect enzyme activity.


Preview of the front of card 5
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