F215 Keywords

A length of DNA that codes for one or more polypeptides
1 of 93
Large polymer molecule made of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds
2 of 93
All the genetic information within an organism/cell
3 of 93
A macromolecule. A polymer of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds
4 of 93
The formation of an RNA molecule using a length of DNA as a template
5 of 93
Stage of protein synthesis in which amino acids are assmbled at the ribosomes. Amino acids are joined by peptide bonds, following the sequence of codons on the mRNA and the nucleotide sequence on the DNA determines the tertiary structure.
6 of 93
Structural change to genetic material, either to a gene or to a chromosome
7 of 93
Chromosome mutation
Random change to the structure of the chromosome. Different types: inversion, deletion, translocation, non-disjunction
8 of 93
Inversion mutation
A section of chromosome turns through 180 degrees
9 of 93
Deletion mutation
A section of the chromosome is lost
10 of 93
Non-disjunction mutation
Homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly at meiosis ! or chromatids fail to separate at meiosis 2; if this happens to a whole set of chromosomes, polyploidy results
11 of 93
DNA mutation
A change to the DNA structure. May be substiution of one base pair for another, inversion of a base triplet, deletion of a base pair or triplet of bases, addition of a base pair or triplet of babes or a triple nucleotide repeat (stutter)
12 of 93
An alternative version of a gene
13 of 93
A unit consisting of genes that work together under the control of an operator gene. The lac operon consists of two structural genes and an operator gene. First discovered in prokaryotes but also in eukaryotes
14 of 93
Repressor protein
A protein in which its binding to the operator inhibits the transcription of one or more genes
15 of 93
Homeobox genes
Genes that control the development of the body plan of an organism
16 of 93
Endocytosis of large solid molecules into a cell
17 of 93
Type of nuclear division. A reduction division. The chomosome number is halved. It involves two divisions. It produces cells that are genetically different from each other and from the parent cell
18 of 93
Specific position on a chromosome, occupied by a specific gene
19 of 93
Crossing over
When non-sister chromatids exchange alleles during prophase 1 of meiosis
20 of 93
A characteristic where both alleles for a gene contribute to the phenotype
21 of 93
Eukaryotic cell or organism that has two different alleles for a specific gene
22 of 93
Eukaryotic cell or organism that has two identical alleles for a specific gene
23 of 93
The interaction of genes concerned with the expression of one characteristic. One gene may mask the expression of another gene
24 of 93
Chi squared test
Statistical test that can be carried out on data that are in categories. It enables the investigator to determine how closely an observed set of data compares to the expected data
25 of 93
All of the organisms of one species, who live in the same place at the same time, and who can breed together
26 of 93
Gene pool
Total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members within a population of organism
27 of 93
Selection pressure
Environmental factor that confers greater chances of surviving and reproducing on some members of the population than on others
28 of 93
Biological species concept
A group of similar organisms that can interbreed and prodcue fertile offspring and is reproductively isolated from other groups
29 of 93
Phylogenetic species concept
A group of organisms that have similar morphology, physiology, embryology, and behaviour and occupy the same ecological niche
30 of 93
Monophyletic group
This group includes an ancestral organism and all its descendent species
31 of 93
Paraphyletic group
Includes the most recent ancestor but not all its descendents. It is a monophyletic group with one or more clades excluded. E.g grouping of reptiles which excludes birds which are descendents of reptiles
32 of 93
Vegetative propagation
Asexual reproduction in plants making use of specialised vegetative structures that grown to form new and separate but cloned individual organisms
33 of 93
Tissue culture
Separation of cells of undifferentiated cells grown in a nutrient medium containing hormones that stimulate development of the complete organism
34 of 93
A mass of undifferentiated plant cells formed by meristem tissue extracted from the plant and grown in tissue culture
35 of 93
Cloned animal
An individual that is genetically identical to another animal. The animal has the same genotype as the donor organism
36 of 93
Use of microorganisms or biochemical reactions to generate useful products
37 of 93
Growth points in a plant where immature cells are still capable of dividing
38 of 93
Growth of microorganisms. Could be a single species (pure culture) or a mixture of species (mixed culture). Can be cultured in a nutrient broth or nutrient agar gel
39 of 93
Aseptic technique
Any techniques of equipment or materials that are designed to prevent contamination by foreign and unwanted microorganisms
40 of 93
Without contamination. In biotechnology, it refers to a lack of contamination by foreign unwanted microorganisms
41 of 93
Immobilisation of enzymes
The technique which involves enzyme molecules being hel and separated from a substrate mixture. Substrate can remain bound despite immobilisation, before returning to the mixture and leaving the enzyme in place
42 of 93
The study of the whole set of genetic information in the form of DNA base sequences that occur in the cells of organisms of a particular species
43 of 93
The method used to separate molecules in a mixture based on size. WHen a current is applied, charged particles are attracted to the oppositely charged electrode. The smallest molecules move fastest, so molecules separate out by size
44 of 93
Short single stranded sequences of DNA around 10 bases in length. Needed in sequence reactions and polymerase chain reactions to bind section of DNA because DNA polymerase cannot bind directly to single stranded DNA fragments
45 of 93
Hydrogen bond formation between complementary base pairs when sections of single stranded DNA or RNA join together. Annealing is seen when complementary sticky ends join and where DNA probes atttach to a complementary DNA section
46 of 93
Sticky end
Formed when DNA is cut using a restriction enzyme. It is a short run of unpaired exposed bases seen a the end of a cut section. Complementary sticky ends can anneal as part of the process of recombining DNA fragments
47 of 93
An organism that contains DNA from another organism, as a result of genetic engineering
48 of 93
Replica plating
Growing bacteria on an agar plate, then transferring a replica of that growth to other plates using a sterile velvet pad. The replica plates contain different antibiotics. Analysis provides insight of the genetic properties of the bacteria
49 of 93
Golden rice
Variety of rice that is genetically engineered to carry large amounts of the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene. Appears golden brown unlike its relative that is white
50 of 93
An organism that has undergone genetic engineered and is a genetically modified organism
51 of 93
Small spheres of lipid bilayer containing a functioning allele. They pass through the lipid bilayer of cells and therefore act as vectors to carry the allele into the cell
52 of 93
Transplantation of cell tissues or organs between animals of different species
53 of 93
The place where an organism or population of organisms lives
54 of 93
All of the organisms of one species who live in the same area at the same time and who can breed together
55 of 93
All the populations of different species that live in the same place at the same time and who can interact with each other
56 of 93
Primary productivity
The rate at which energy is fixed by photosynthesis via the net flux of carbon from the atmosphere to plants
57 of 93
Net primary productivity
The rate at which carbohydrate accumulates in tissue of plants. Measured as: net PP = PP - respiratory heat loss which is measured by calculating dry mass. Its also the engergy available to heterotrophs
58 of 93
A relationship between two organsims from which both benefit
59 of 93
A form of artificial vegetative propagation using sterile explant tissue grown to form a callus culture from which many new plants are grown by separation and growth of small parts of the callus. Useful in mass-producing plant clones
60 of 93
A piece of tissue taken from a particular plant (includes meristematic tissue) then sterilised in order to grow a callus in tissue culture micropropagation
61 of 93
A directional change in a community of organisms over time
62 of 93
Carrying capacity
The maximum population size that can be mainted over a period of time in a particular habitat
63 of 93
Programmed cell death. An orderly process by which cells dies after they have undergone the maximum number of divisions
64 of 93
A struggle between individuals for resources that are not present in amounts adequate to satisfy the needs of all the individuals who depend on those resources
65 of 93
The cutting of a tree trunk close to the ground to encourage new growth
66 of 93
Maintenance of biodiversity, including diversity between species, genetic diversity within species, and maintenance of a variety of habitats and ecosystems
67 of 93
A directional growth response in which the direction of the growth is determined by the direction of the external stimulus
68 of 93
Bacterial cells can join together and pass plasmid DNA from one bacterial cell to another. This process can take place between bacteria of different species and is of concern in term of passing plasmid located genes for antibiotic resistance
69 of 93
Continuous culture
A culture of microorganisms set up in a reaction vessel to which substrates are added and from which products are removed as the fermentation process continues
70 of 93
Shoots grow towards light (they are positively phototrophic) which allows them to photosynthesise
71 of 93
Roots grow towards the pull of gravity which anchors them in the soil and helps to take up water which is needed for support (turgidity), for photosynthesis and to cool the plant. Also contains minerals and nitrates for amino acid synthesis
72 of 93
Batch culture
A culture of microorganisms that takes place in a single fermentation. Products are separated from the mixture at the end of the fermentation process
73 of 93
Use of microorganisms to remove waste products from a location or substance . THe most important example is waste water (sewage) treatment.
74 of 93
Closed culture
A culture of microorganisms set up in a reacion vessel and then allowed to grow without the addition of nutrients or the removal of products or wastes
75 of 93
Apical dominance
The growing apical bud at the tip of the shoot inhibits growth of lateral buds further down the shoot
76 of 93
Largest and most recognisable part of the brain that is responsible for elements of the nervous system including thought, imagination and reasoning
77 of 93
Part of the brain that controls the coordination of movement and posture
78 of 93
Controls the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine glands
79 of 93
Medulla oblongata
Controls the action of smooth muscle in the gut wall and controls breathing movements and heart rate
80 of 93
Central nervous system
Consists of the brain and spinal cord. It has overall control over the coordination of the nervous system
81 of 93
Peripheral nervous system
The sensory and motor neurones connecting the central nervous system to the sensors and effectors round the body
82 of 93
Neuromuscular juntion
Specialised synapse which occurs at the end of a motor neurone where it meets a muscle fibre. Release of acetyl choline following depolarisation at the junction, stimulating contraction of the muscle fibre
83 of 93
In voluntary muscle, the span between one Z-line to the next. Z-lines are cetnral to part of the I band which alternates with the A band. The sarcomere is the smallest unit of contraction, consisting of thick and thin filaments.
84 of 93
Cross bridge
In voluntary muscle, the joining of a myosin head group to an actin thin filament in the presence of calcium ions
85 of 93
Fight or flight response
Refers to full range of coordinated responses of animals to situations of perceived danger. The hormonal and nervous sytem combine to have dramatic effects that either cause confrontation of the danger or escaping it
86 of 93
Stimulus that causes the stress response. Causes wear and tear on the body's phisical and mental resource
87 of 93
Innate behaviour
An animal that is capable of from birth withouy any learning or experience
88 of 93
Learned behaviour
Refers to animal responses that change or adapt with experience. There is a range of different types: learning to respond to stimulation, the ability to consider a problem and formlate a plan
89 of 93
Within a group, individuals are placed in order of importance. This is often shown by individuals higher up receiving more food and access to whichever mate they chose
90 of 93
Gene that codes for a dopamine receptor molecule
91 of 93
Social behaviour
Organisms of a particular species living together in groups with relatively defined roles for each member of the group
92 of 93
A mental health condition, characterised by an impaired grasp on reality. Diminished impulse control and disorder of perception
93 of 93

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Large polymer molecule made of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds



Card 3


All the genetic information within an organism/cell


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


A macromolecule. A polymer of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


The formation of an RNA molecule using a length of DNA as a template


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all All F215 resources »